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Natuurwetenskappe

Energie-oordrag en kragte

Opvoeders afdeling

Memorandum

3. Flitslig van kamera - battery

4. Paraffienverwarmer paraffien

5. Gasverwarmer - gas

6. Haardroër - elektrisiteit

7. Windmeul - wind, ens.

Leerder afdeling

Inhoud

Aktiwiteit: om die energiebronne van alledaagse items te identifiseer [lu 1.2]

Dink aan items in julle huise en aan dinge wat beweeg, en doen dan die volgende saam met ‘n maat. Probeer om die lys te voltooi:

ITEM BRON VAN ENERGIE
motor petrol / diesel
trein elektrisiteit / steenkool
_______________________________ _______________________________
_______________________________ _______________________________
_______________________________ _______________________________
_______________________________ _______________________________
_______________________________ _______________________________

3. Brandstowwe

Die plante en diere wat miljoene jare gelede gelewe het, het die son se energie geabsorbeer terwyl hulle gegroei het. Hulle is begrawe onder rotslae wat mettertyd oor hulle gevorm het. Hulle oorblyfsels is geleidelik deur verskillende chemiese reaksies in olie, steenkool en gasse verander. Ons noem hierdie brandstowwe fossielbrandstowwe . Olie, steenkool en gasse is nie-hernubaar , d.w.s. hulle kan nie vervang word nie. Daarbenewens moet hulle uit ondergrondse reserwes gemyn word en hul verbranding doen skade aan ons omgewing en ons gesondheid. Een nie-hernubare energiebron wat nie ‘n fossielbrandstof is nie, is kernkrag . Sekere metale soos uraan ondergaan ‘n proses wat ons kernsplitsing noem en stel dan groot hoeveelhede energie vry. Kernkrag word bv. by die kernkragstasie by Koeberg gebruik om elektrisiteit op te wek wat deur die inwoners van Kaapstad gebruik word. ‘n Klein hoeveelheid kernkrag lewer groot hoeveelhede kernbrandstof en veroorsaak baie min omgewingsbesoedeling. Daar is ook tans groot hoeveelhede kernbrandstof beskikbaar. Kernkragsentrales moet naby die kus gebou word as gevolg van die behoefte aan waterverkoeling. Dit bring mee dat die energie soms oor lang afstande vervoer moet word. Radioaktiewe bestraling kan lei tot gesondheidsgevare en dit neem honderde jare voordat radioaktiewe kernafvalprodukte nie meer radioaktief is nie en moet dus vir baie jare in spesiale houers ondergronds geberg word. Kernkrag veroorsaak egter nie suurreën of die kweekhuiseffek soos fossielbrandstowwe nie.

Omdat hierdie nie-hernubare brandstowwe nie meer vir baie lank beskikbaar gaan wees nie, moet ons energie bespaar en van alternatiewe energiebronne soos die son, water, wind, golwe, getye en biogasse begin gebruik maak vir ons krag. Groot vordering is reeds op hierdie gebied gemaak.

Assessering

Leeruitkomste 1: Die leerder is in staat om met selfvertroue op weetgierigheid oor natuurlike verskynsels te reageer, en om binne die konteks van wetenskap, tegnologie en die omgewing verbande te ondersoek en probleme op te los.

Assesseringstandaard 1.2: Dit is duidelik wanneer die leerder ondersoeke uitvoer en data versamel: organiseer en gebruik toerusting of bronne om inligting in te versamel en aan te teken

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Source:  OpenStax, Natuurwetenskappe graad 7. OpenStax CNX. Sep 16, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11078/1.1
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