# 2.3 Histograms  (Page 2/4)

 Page 2 / 4

• 68
• 68
• 69
• 69
• 69
• 69
• 69
• 69
• 69
• 69
• 69
• 69
• 69.5
• 69.5
• 69.5
• 69.5
• 69.5

• 70
• 70
• 70
• 70
• 70
• 70
• 70.5
• 70.5
• 70.5
• 71
• 71
• 71

• 72
• 72
• 72
• 72.5
• 72.5
• 73
• 73.5

• 74

The smallest data value is 60. Since the data with the most decimal places has one decimal (for instance, 61.5), we want our starting point to have two decimal places. Since the numbers 0.5, 0.05, 0.005, etc. are convenient numbers, use 0.05 and subtract it from 60, the smallest value, for the convenient starting point.

60 - 0.05 = 59.95 which is more precise than, say, 61.5 by one decimal place. The starting point is, then, 59.95.

The largest value is 74. 74+ 0.05 = 74.05 is the ending value.

Next, calculate the width of each bar or class interval. To calculate this width, subtract the starting point from the ending value and divide by the number of bars (you must choose the number of bars you desire). Suppose you choose 8 bars.

$\frac{74.05-59.95}{8}=1.76$
We will round up to 2 and make each bar or class interval 2 units wide. Rounding up to 2 is one way to prevent a value from falling on a boundary. Rounding to the next number is necessary even if it goes against the standard rules of rounding. For this example, using 1.76 as the width would also work.

The boundaries are:

• 59.95
• 59.95 + 2 = 61.95
• 61.95 + 2 = 63.95
• 63.95 + 2 = 65.95
• 65.95 + 2 = 67.95
• 67.95 + 2 = 69.95
• 69.95 + 2 = 71.95
• 71.95 + 2 = 73.95
• 73.95 + 2 = 75.95

The heights 60 through 61.5 inches are in the interval 59.95 - 61.95. The heights that are 63.5 are in the interval 61.95 - 63.95. The heights that are 64 through 64.5 are in the interval 63.95 - 65.95. The heights 66 through 67.5 are in the interval 65.95 - 67.95. The heights 68 through 69.5 are in the interval 67.95 - 69.95. The heights 70 through 71 are in the interval 69.95 - 71.95. The heights 72 through 73.5 are in the interval 71.95 - 73.95. The height 74 is in the interval 73.95 - 75.95.

The following histogram displays the heights on the x-axis and relative frequency on the y-axis.

The following data are the number of books bought by 50 part-time college students at ABC College. The number of books is discrete data since books are counted.

• 1
• 1
• 1
• 1
• 1
• 1
• 1
• 1
• 1
• 1
• 1

• 2
• 2
• 2
• 2
• 2
• 2
• 2
• 2
• 2
• 2

• 3
• 3
• 3
• 3
• 3
• 3
• 3
• 3
• 3
• 3
• 3
• 3
• 3
• 3
• 3
• 3

• 4
• 4
• 4
• 4
• 4
• 4

• 5
• 5
• 5
• 5
• 5

• 6
• 6

Because the data are integers, subtract 0.5 from 1, the smallest data value and add 0.5 to 6, the largest data value. Then the starting point is 0.5 and the ending value is 6.5.

Next, calculate the width of each bar or class interval. If the data are discrete and there are not too many different values, a width that places the data values in the middle of the bar or class interval is the most convenient. Since the data consist of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and the starting point is 0.5, a width of one places the 1 in the middle of the interval from 0.5 to 1.5, the 2 in the middle of the interval from 1.5 to 2.5, the 3 in the middle of the interval from 2.5 to 3.5, the 4 in the middle of the interval from _______ to _______, the 5 in the middle of the interval from _______ to _______, and the _______ in the middle of the interval from _______ to _______ .

• 3.5 to 4.5
• 4.5 to 5.5
• 6
• 5.5 to 6.5

Calculate the number of bars as follows:

$\frac{6.5-0.5}{\mathrm{bars}}=1$

where 1 is the width of a bar. Therefore, $\mathrm{bars}=6$ .

The following histogram displays the number of books on the x-axis and the frequency on the y-axis.

## Using the ti-83, 83+, 84, 84+ calculator instructions

Go to the Appendix (14:Appendix) in the menu on the left. There are calculator instructions for entering data and for creating a customized histogram. Create the histogram for Example 2.
• Press Y=. Press CLEAR to clear out any equations.
• Press STAT 1:EDIT. If L1 has data in it, arrow up into the name L1, press CLEAR and arrow down. If necessary, do the same for L2.
• Into L1, enter 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
• Into L2, enter 11, 10, 16, 6, 5, 2
• Press WINDOW. Make Xmin = .5, Xmax = 6.5, Xscl = (6.5 - .5)/6, Ymin = -1, Ymax = 20, Yscl = 1, Xres = 1
• Press 2nd Y=. Start by pressing 4:Plotsoff ENTER.
• Press 2nd Y=. Press 1:Plot1. Press ENTER. Arrow down to TYPE. Arrow to the 3rd picture (histogram). Press ENTER.
• Arrow down to Xlist: Enter L1 (2nd 1). Arrow down to Freq. Enter L2 (2nd 2).
• Press GRAPH
• Use the TRACE key and the arrow keys to examine the histogram.

## Optional collaborative exercise

Count the money (bills and change) in your pocket or purse. Your instructor will record the amounts. As a class, construct a histogram displaying the data. Discuss how many intervals you think is appropriate. You may want to experiment with the number of intervals. Discuss, also, the shape of the histogram.

Record the data, in dollars (for example, 1.25 dollars).

Construct a histogram.

I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
1 It is estimated that 30% of all drivers have some kind of medical aid in South Africa. What is the probability that in a sample of 10 drivers: 3.1.1 Exactly 4 will have a medical aid. (8) 3.1.2 At least 2 will have a medical aid. (8) 3.1.3 More than 9 will have a medical aid.