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This brief response will venture answers to these questions in more specific terms of our project to build an archive based on Native American cultures that trace their ancestral origins back to the oral tradition. I certainly cannot speak for all the scholars working on digital projects with Native American communities, of which there are many. Perhaps by sharing a few stories of institutional obstacles encountered along the way, innovative end runs, and the difficult choices that loom on the horizon, this response can explore new models for sustainability that help break down the digital divide, empower historically underrepresented communities, and further expand the field of digital humanities.

Obstacles overcome, opportunities as yet unrealized

It is always important to begin any discussion of the Gibagadinamaagoom [GEE-bug-ah-DEEN-ah-mah-GOOM] (“To Bring to Life, to Sanction, to Give Authority”) archive by acknowledging that it is not my project. To the Ojibwe people with whom I work, I am an oshkabewis, a novice in terms of understanding the old ways, but one who listens intently and respectfully to the elders deeply enough to work in partnership. This partnership includes Medicine Men, Sacred Pipe Carriers, language-keepers, deans and faculty at four tribal and community colleges, filmmakers, and hundreds of Ojibwe students across northern Minnesota. It also includes august cultural institutions like the University of Pennsylvania’s Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, the Minnesota Historical Society, and the American Philosophical Society. Our goal, from the outset, has been to build a digital archive based on the seven sacred directions of Ojibwe cosmology, featuring videos of Ojibwe elders and teachers speaking in unscripted narratives about topics of their own choosing, to be used by Ojibwe high school and tribal college students for language preservation and cultural revitalization. While a worthy goal and a never-ending adventure, one can imagine the difficulties trying to sell a project with a name no administrator can pronounce to the technological powers-that-be at the University of Pennsylvania.

The first, crucial phase of development, then, took place far outside of the academy’s ivy-covered walls. In 2006, we received an NEH Humanities Initiatives with Tribal Colleges grant, through White Earth Tribal and Community College, that allowed us to develop the Gibagadinamaagoom prototype website. Our goal was to build a site in accordance with Ojibwe traditional codes of conduct. Upon entering the site, the visitor is greeted by a prayer in the Ojibwe language recited by Jimmy Jackson, a highly respected Medicine Man who passed away many years ago—a voice from the spirit world. The prayer is accompanied by a video of Larry Aitken, an Ojibwe Sacred Pipe Carrier, explaining the importance of offering tobacco before asking the elders to share their wisdom. The visitor thus begins his or her journey of understanding in keeping with traditional Ojibwe codes of conduct. The navigation system is based on the seven sacred directions of the Ojibwe cosmology—East, West, South, North, Mother Earth, Star World, where ancestral spirits abide, and the Above World occupied by the Gitchi Manidoo (“Great Spirit”). This complex, culturally inspirited interface could only have been realized by working in close consultation with our advisory board of Ojibwe wisdom-keepers. It is not, obviously, the easiest site for a non-Native person to use. The prayer in Ojibwe is untranslated because the elders wanted non-Native viewers to realize from the outset that there would be some things they would not understand. There is also very little writing in the seven directions part of the site. The idea was that the Ojibwe people should be allowed to speak for themselves, without a non-Native ethnographer (me) explaining what they were saying. The site, therefore, hews very closely to the oral tradition. And when it is shown in an Ojibwe context—in Quiz Bowl competitions, for example, when wisdom-keepers show the videos to Ojibwe high school and tribal college students—it is accompanied by oratory, an ancient art form that augments and enlivens the digital technology. It is interesting to note here how the Ojibwe wisdom-keepers recontextualize digital technology-- utilizing it as part of a cultural continuum that can be traced back hundreds, if not thousands, of years. From their perspective, digital videos record the oral tradition much more accurately than print media ever did.

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Online humanities scholarship: the shape of things to come. OpenStax CNX. May 08, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11199/1.1
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