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This brief response will venture answers to these questions in more specific terms of our project to build an archive based on Native American cultures that trace their ancestral origins back to the oral tradition. I certainly cannot speak for all the scholars working on digital projects with Native American communities, of which there are many. Perhaps by sharing a few stories of institutional obstacles encountered along the way, innovative end runs, and the difficult choices that loom on the horizon, this response can explore new models for sustainability that help break down the digital divide, empower historically underrepresented communities, and further expand the field of digital humanities.

Obstacles overcome, opportunities as yet unrealized

It is always important to begin any discussion of the Gibagadinamaagoom [GEE-bug-ah-DEEN-ah-mah-GOOM] (“To Bring to Life, to Sanction, to Give Authority”) archive by acknowledging that it is not my project. To the Ojibwe people with whom I work, I am an oshkabewis, a novice in terms of understanding the old ways, but one who listens intently and respectfully to the elders deeply enough to work in partnership. This partnership includes Medicine Men, Sacred Pipe Carriers, language-keepers, deans and faculty at four tribal and community colleges, filmmakers, and hundreds of Ojibwe students across northern Minnesota. It also includes august cultural institutions like the University of Pennsylvania’s Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, the Minnesota Historical Society, and the American Philosophical Society. Our goal, from the outset, has been to build a digital archive based on the seven sacred directions of Ojibwe cosmology, featuring videos of Ojibwe elders and teachers speaking in unscripted narratives about topics of their own choosing, to be used by Ojibwe high school and tribal college students for language preservation and cultural revitalization. While a worthy goal and a never-ending adventure, one can imagine the difficulties trying to sell a project with a name no administrator can pronounce to the technological powers-that-be at the University of Pennsylvania.

The first, crucial phase of development, then, took place far outside of the academy’s ivy-covered walls. In 2006, we received an NEH Humanities Initiatives with Tribal Colleges grant, through White Earth Tribal and Community College, that allowed us to develop the Gibagadinamaagoom prototype website. Our goal was to build a site in accordance with Ojibwe traditional codes of conduct. Upon entering the site, the visitor is greeted by a prayer in the Ojibwe language recited by Jimmy Jackson, a highly respected Medicine Man who passed away many years ago—a voice from the spirit world. The prayer is accompanied by a video of Larry Aitken, an Ojibwe Sacred Pipe Carrier, explaining the importance of offering tobacco before asking the elders to share their wisdom. The visitor thus begins his or her journey of understanding in keeping with traditional Ojibwe codes of conduct. The navigation system is based on the seven sacred directions of the Ojibwe cosmology—East, West, South, North, Mother Earth, Star World, where ancestral spirits abide, and the Above World occupied by the Gitchi Manidoo (“Great Spirit”). This complex, culturally inspirited interface could only have been realized by working in close consultation with our advisory board of Ojibwe wisdom-keepers. It is not, obviously, the easiest site for a non-Native person to use. The prayer in Ojibwe is untranslated because the elders wanted non-Native viewers to realize from the outset that there would be some things they would not understand. There is also very little writing in the seven directions part of the site. The idea was that the Ojibwe people should be allowed to speak for themselves, without a non-Native ethnographer (me) explaining what they were saying. The site, therefore, hews very closely to the oral tradition. And when it is shown in an Ojibwe context—in Quiz Bowl competitions, for example, when wisdom-keepers show the videos to Ojibwe high school and tribal college students—it is accompanied by oratory, an ancient art form that augments and enlivens the digital technology. It is interesting to note here how the Ojibwe wisdom-keepers recontextualize digital technology-- utilizing it as part of a cultural continuum that can be traced back hundreds, if not thousands, of years. From their perspective, digital videos record the oral tradition much more accurately than print media ever did.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Online humanities scholarship: the shape of things to come. OpenStax CNX. May 08, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11199/1.1
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