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As a cautionary note, the results from the previous Concept Development Study make it clear that not every rate law is as simple as the one for the reaction of O 3 with Cl. We will return to this topic in a later section.

Observation 2: temperature dependence of reaction rates

How is the effect of temperature change on the reaction rate reflected in the rate law equation? Recall that a rate law shows the dependence of the reaction rate on reactant concentrations, e.g. the rate of reaction of I 2 gas with H 2 as described in Equation (3) gas is given by the rate law in Equation (4).

H 2 (g) + I 2 (g) → 2HI(g)

Rate = k[H 2 ][I 2 ]

One possibility for the increase in the rate of this reaction when temperature is increased is that there is a slight dependence on temperature of the concentrations, since volumes do vary with temperature. However, this is insufficient to account for the dramatic changes in rate typically observed. Therefore, the temperature dependence of the reaction rate is primarily found in the rate constant, k . The rate constant of this reaction at each temperature can be found using the Method of Initial Rates, as discussed in the previous study, and we find in Table 1 that the rate constant increases dramatically as the temperature increases.

Rate constant for H 2 (g) + I 2 (g)
T(K) k (1/M∙sec)
667 6.8×10 -3
675 9.87×10 -3
700 3.00×10 -2
725 8.43×10 -2
750 2.21×10 -1
775 5.46×10 -1
800 1.27

As shown in Figure 1, the rate constant appears to increase exponentially with temperature. After a little experimentation with the data, we find in Figure 2 that there is a simple linear relationship between ln( k ) and 1/T.

From Figure 2, we can see that the data in Table 1 fit the equation

ln (k) = a 1 T + b

where a and b are constant for this reaction. It turns out that, for our purposes, all reactions have rate constants that fit Equation (5), but with different constants a and b for each reaction. Figure 2 is referred to as an Arrhenius plot, after Svante Arrhenius.

It is not obvious why this equation should work for every chemical reaction. When we remember that the temperature is related to energy, it would seem that exothermic reactions and endothermic reactions should have different temperature dependence. Since they do not, this suggests that temperature increases and corresponding energy increases are not connected to the overall energy change of a reaction. This will lead us to a model to account for the temperature dependence of the rate constant. We will develop this further later in the next section.

Observation 3: activation energy

Equation (5) is very convenient for describing the temperature dependence of a reaction. However, we would like some insight into why the temperature dependence should obey Equation (5), and in particular, into the meaning of the constants a and b in the equation.

As noted at the end of the last section, Equation (5) describes the rate constant temperature dependence regardless of whether the reaction is endothermic or exothermic. Therefore, whatever the energetic factor is that is required for the reaction to occur, it is not just that the reaction is endothermic. Exothermic reactions apparently require energy as well. It must be that all reactions, regardless of the overall change in energy, require energy to occur.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry 2013. OpenStax CNX. Oct 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11579/1.1
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