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As a cautionary note, the results from the previous Concept Development Study make it clear that not every rate law is as simple as the one for the reaction of O 3 with Cl. We will return to this topic in a later section.

Observation 2: temperature dependence of reaction rates

How is the effect of temperature change on the reaction rate reflected in the rate law equation? Recall that a rate law shows the dependence of the reaction rate on reactant concentrations, e.g. the rate of reaction of I 2 gas with H 2 as described in Equation (3) gas is given by the rate law in Equation (4).

H 2 (g) + I 2 (g) → 2HI(g)

Rate = k[H 2 ][I 2 ]

One possibility for the increase in the rate of this reaction when temperature is increased is that there is a slight dependence on temperature of the concentrations, since volumes do vary with temperature. However, this is insufficient to account for the dramatic changes in rate typically observed. Therefore, the temperature dependence of the reaction rate is primarily found in the rate constant, k . The rate constant of this reaction at each temperature can be found using the Method of Initial Rates, as discussed in the previous study, and we find in Table 1 that the rate constant increases dramatically as the temperature increases.

Rate constant for H 2 (g) + I 2 (g)
T(K) k (1/M∙sec)
667 6.8×10 -3
675 9.87×10 -3
700 3.00×10 -2
725 8.43×10 -2
750 2.21×10 -1
775 5.46×10 -1
800 1.27

As shown in Figure 1, the rate constant appears to increase exponentially with temperature. After a little experimentation with the data, we find in Figure 2 that there is a simple linear relationship between ln( k ) and 1/T.

From Figure 2, we can see that the data in Table 1 fit the equation

ln (k) = a 1 T + b

where a and b are constant for this reaction. It turns out that, for our purposes, all reactions have rate constants that fit Equation (5), but with different constants a and b for each reaction. Figure 2 is referred to as an Arrhenius plot, after Svante Arrhenius.

It is not obvious why this equation should work for every chemical reaction. When we remember that the temperature is related to energy, it would seem that exothermic reactions and endothermic reactions should have different temperature dependence. Since they do not, this suggests that temperature increases and corresponding energy increases are not connected to the overall energy change of a reaction. This will lead us to a model to account for the temperature dependence of the rate constant. We will develop this further later in the next section.

Observation 3: activation energy

Equation (5) is very convenient for describing the temperature dependence of a reaction. However, we would like some insight into why the temperature dependence should obey Equation (5), and in particular, into the meaning of the constants a and b in the equation.

As noted at the end of the last section, Equation (5) describes the rate constant temperature dependence regardless of whether the reaction is endothermic or exothermic. Therefore, whatever the energetic factor is that is required for the reaction to occur, it is not just that the reaction is endothermic. Exothermic reactions apparently require energy as well. It must be that all reactions, regardless of the overall change in energy, require energy to occur.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry 2013. OpenStax CNX. Oct 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11579/1.1
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