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Second, let’s think about the malleability and ductility of solid metals. These properties mean that the bonding of the metal atoms together is not affected much when the atoms are rearranged. It may be difficult to see on the macroscale, but bending a piece of metal or stretching into a thin wire requires major movement of atoms. And since bending the metal does not break it into pieces, the adjacent atoms must remain bonded together despite these large atomic movements. Apparently, the bonding electrons are not affected by this rearrangement of atoms. This is completely consistent with the idea we just discussed, that the electrons are free to move about many nuclei and are not just localized between two adjacent nuclei. When the atoms are rearranged by bending or stretching, the electrons are free to immediately rearrange as well, and the bonding is preserved.

Our picture of a metal, based on these conclusions, is that the nuclei of the metal atoms are arranged in an array in the solid metal. The non-valence electrons in each metal, which are strongly attracted to each nucleus, remain localized near their own atoms. The valence electrons, though, are free to move about the positive centers of the nuclei and core electrons. Once you have this image in your head, you can see why chemists refer to this as the “electron sea model” of a metal. You should also be able to see how the properties of metals lead us to this electron sea image.

What about the shininess of metals? To understand this, we need to know what causes light to shine off of a surface. From our previous studies, we learned that light (electromagnetic energy) can be absorbed by atoms causing electrons to move from a lower energy state to a higher one. Similarly, light can be emitted from an atom with an electron moving from a higher energy state to a lower one. According to Einstein’s formula, the frequency of the light ν absorbed or emitted, when multiplied by a constant h, must match the energy difference ∆E between the two electron states: ∆E=hν.

Because there are so many electrons in the electron sea which are involved in the bonding of the metal atoms together, there are many, many electron energy levels, a huge number in fact. So there are a correspondingly huge number of energy differences between these levels. This means that, when visible light hits the surface of a metal, the metal can easily absorb and reemit light of that frequency, reflecting the light and making the surface appear to shine.

Overall, we can see that the “electron sea” model of bonding of metal atoms together accounts for the properties of metals we have observed. It is worth thinking about how very different this model of bonding is from the covalent model of bonding in non-metals. We’ll come back to this contrast in the last section of this study.

Observation 2: properties of salts

There are many types of compounds formed by combining metals atoms and non-metal atoms. To simplify our discussion, we are going to focus on one specific type of compound called a salt. The common use of the term “salt” refers to one specific compound Sodium Chloride (NaCl), which is also a great example of the more general idea of a salt, so we’ll start with it and then consider some more examples.

Questions & Answers

show that the set of all natural number form semi group under the composition of addition
Nikhil Reply
what is the meaning
Dominic
explain and give four Example hyperbolic function
Lukman Reply
_3_2_1
felecia
⅗ ⅔½
felecia
_½+⅔-¾
felecia
The denominator of a certain fraction is 9 more than the numerator. If 6 is added to both terms of the fraction, the value of the fraction becomes 2/3. Find the original fraction. 2. The sum of the least and greatest of 3 consecutive integers is 60. What are the valu
SABAL Reply
1. x + 6 2 -------------- = _ x + 9 + 6 3 x + 6 3 ----------- x -- (cross multiply) x + 15 2 3(x + 6) = 2(x + 15) 3x + 18 = 2x + 30 (-2x from both) x + 18 = 30 (-18 from both) x = 12 Test: 12 + 6 18 2 -------------- = --- = --- 12 + 9 + 6 27 3
Pawel
2. (x) + (x + 2) = 60 2x + 2 = 60 2x = 58 x = 29 29, 30, & 31
Pawel
ok
Ifeanyi
on number 2 question How did you got 2x +2
Ifeanyi
combine like terms. x + x + 2 is same as 2x + 2
Pawel
x*x=2
felecia
2+2x=
felecia
×/×+9+6/1
Debbie
Q2 x+(x+2)+(x+4)=60 3x+6=60 3x+6-6=60-6 3x=54 3x/3=54/3 x=18 :. The numbers are 18,20 and 22
Naagmenkoma
Mark and Don are planning to sell each of their marble collections at a garage sale. If Don has 1 more than 3 times the number of marbles Mark has, how many does each boy have to sell if the total number of marbles is 113?
mariel Reply
Mark = x,. Don = 3x + 1 x + 3x + 1 = 113 4x = 112, x = 28 Mark = 28, Don = 85, 28 + 85 = 113
Pawel
how do I set up the problem?
Harshika Reply
what is a solution set?
Harshika
find the subring of gaussian integers?
Rofiqul
hello, I am happy to help!
Shirley Reply
please can go further on polynomials quadratic
Abdullahi
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Mark
I need quadratic equation link to Alpa Beta
Abdullahi Reply
find the value of 2x=32
Felix Reply
divide by 2 on each side of the equal sign to solve for x
corri
X=16
Michael
Want to review on complex number 1.What are complex number 2.How to solve complex number problems.
Beyan
yes i wantt to review
Mark
16
Makan
x=16
Makan
use the y -intercept and slope to sketch the graph of the equation y=6x
Only Reply
how do we prove the quadratic formular
Seidu Reply
please help me prove quadratic formula
Darius
hello, if you have a question about Algebra 2. I may be able to help. I am an Algebra 2 Teacher
Shirley Reply
thank you help me with how to prove the quadratic equation
Seidu
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Opoku
what is math number
Tric Reply
4
Trista
x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
Sidiki Reply
can you teacch how to solve that🙏
Mark
Solve for the first variable in one of the equations, then substitute the result into the other equation. Point For: (6111,4111,−411)(6111,4111,-411) Equation Form: x=6111,y=4111,z=−411x=6111,y=4111,z=-411
Brenna
(61/11,41/11,−4/11)
Brenna
x=61/11 y=41/11 z=−4/11 x=61/11 y=41/11 z=-4/11
Brenna
Need help solving this problem (2/7)^-2
Simone Reply
x+2y-z=7
Sidiki
what is the coefficient of -4×
Mehri Reply
-1
Shedrak
A soccer field is a rectangle 130 meters wide and 110 meters long. The coach asks players to run from one corner to the other corner diagonally across. What is that distance, to the nearest tenths place.
Kimberly Reply
Jeannette has $5 and $10 bills in her wallet. The number of fives is three more than six times the number of tens. Let t represent the number of tens. Write an expression for the number of fives.
August Reply
What is the expressiin for seven less than four times the number of nickels
Leonardo Reply
How do i figure this problem out.
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
Shanjida
I think if critical temperature denote high temperature then a liquid stats boils that time the water stats to evaporate so some moles of h2o to up and due to high temp the bonding break they have low density so it can be a reason
s.
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry 2012. OpenStax CNX. Aug 16, 2012 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11444/1.4
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