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Second, let’s think about the malleability and ductility of solid metals. These properties mean that the bonding of the metal atoms together is not affected much when the atoms are rearranged. It may be difficult to see on the macroscale, but bending a piece of metal or stretching into a thin wire requires major movement of atoms. And since bending the metal does not break it into pieces, the adjacent atoms must remain bonded together despite these large atomic movements. Apparently, the bonding electrons are not affected by this rearrangement of atoms. This is completely consistent with the idea we just discussed, that the electrons are free to move about many nuclei and are not just localized between two adjacent nuclei. When the atoms are rearranged by bending or stretching, the electrons are free to immediately rearrange as well, and the bonding is preserved.

Our picture of a metal, based on these conclusions, is that the nuclei of the metal atoms are arranged in an array in the solid metal. The non-valence electrons in each metal, which are strongly attracted to each nucleus, remain localized near their own atoms. The valence electrons, though, are free to move about the positive centers of the nuclei and core electrons. Once you have this image in your head, you can see why chemists refer to this as the “electron sea model” of a metal. You should also be able to see how the properties of metals lead us to this electron sea image.

What about the shininess of metals? To understand this, we need to know what causes light to shine off of a surface. From our previous studies, we learned that light (electromagnetic energy) can be absorbed by atoms causing electrons to move from a lower energy state to a higher one. Similarly, light can be emitted from an atom with an electron moving from a higher energy state to a lower one. According to Einstein’s formula, the frequency of the light ν absorbed or emitted, when multiplied by a constant h, must match the energy difference ∆E between the two electron states: ∆E=hν.

Because there are so many electrons in the electron sea which are involved in the bonding of the metal atoms together, there are many, many electron energy levels, a huge number in fact. So there are a correspondingly huge number of energy differences between these levels. This means that, when visible light hits the surface of a metal, the metal can easily absorb and reemit light of that frequency, reflecting the light and making the surface appear to shine.

Overall, we can see that the “electron sea” model of bonding of metal atoms together accounts for the properties of metals we have observed. It is worth thinking about how very different this model of bonding is from the covalent model of bonding in non-metals. We’ll come back to this contrast in the last section of this study.

Observation 2: properties of salts

There are many types of compounds formed by combining metals atoms and non-metal atoms. To simplify our discussion, we are going to focus on one specific type of compound called a salt. The common use of the term “salt” refers to one specific compound Sodium Chloride (NaCl), which is also a great example of the more general idea of a salt, so we’ll start with it and then consider some more examples.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry 2012. OpenStax CNX. Aug 16, 2012 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11444/1.4
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