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Possible molecular formulae for nitrogen oxides
Assuming that: Oxide C is NO Oxide B is NO Oxide A is NO
Oxide A is NO 4 NO 2 NO
Oxide B is NO 2 NO N 2 O
Oxide C is NO N 2 O N 4 O

We don’t have a way to know which of these sets of molecular formulas are right, since all three sets are consistent with the data we have. How can we pick the right one? If we had some way to “count” the numbers of atoms in a sample of each compounds, then we would know. This sounds quite difficult, though. On the other hand, if we knew that the ratio of the mass of an nitrogen atom to an oxygen atom is 2.28:1.00, which is the mass ratio in Oxide A, then we could know that Oxide A is NO. But we don’t have a way to take the mass of an individual atom, even on a relative basis.

What we have learned is that, if we know the relative masses of the atoms, we can determine molecular formulas. And if we know the molecular formulas, we can determine relative atomic masses. We need one or the other to move forward.


We are assuming that we know the postulates of the Atomic Molecular Theory, as developed in the first Concept Development Study. These are: (1) the elements are comprised of identical atoms; (2) all atoms of a single element have the same characteristic mass; (3) the number and masses of these atoms do not change during a chemical transformation; and (4) compounds consist of identical molecules formed of atoms combined in simple whole number ratios. We will base much of our work on the observed natural laws on which our theory is based: the Law of Conservation of Mass, the Law of Definite Proportions, and the Law of Multiple Proportions.

We will be making observations about the physical properties of gas samples, particularly the volumes of gases measured under conditions with a fixed temperature and a fixed pressure. We will not need much technical information about temperature and pressure. For now, we will simply stick with the common understanding that temperature is a measure of how hot or cold a sample of a substance is. Temperature can be measured by a thermometer, which is any kind of gadget which gives us the same value for two objects that are in contact with each other so that they have the same temperature. Pressure is a measure of what is sometimes called the “spring of air,” which is the force with which a gas resists compression. There are a number of ways to measure pressure, but we will only need to know that we have a way to take measurements on gas samples such that they have the same pressure.

Observation 1: volumes of gases during chemical reactions

During chemical reactions, some chemical and physical properties such as the total mass of the materials remain unchanged, but most properties do change. We commonly observe changes in properties when new materials are made. For example, products of reactions in comparison to the reactants may appear harder or softer, more or less colorful, more or less brittle, and more or less dense. For gases that react, volume is one of those properties that is not always conserved. A famous explosive reaction of gases involves the burning of hydrogen gas in oxygen gas to form water vapor, as shown in Figures 1 and 2. If 1 liter of oxygen gas reacts with 2 liters of hydrogen gas, the product water vapor will occupy 2 liters with no hydrogen or oxygen gas left over. (This is true if the volumes are measured with all gases at the same temperature and pressure.) Notice that the total volume of gases is not conserved: the combined volume of the reactants is 3 liters, but the volume of the product is 2 liters.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry 2012. OpenStax CNX. Aug 16, 2012 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11444/1.4
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