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Foundation

We have observed and defined phase transitions and phase equilibrium. We have also observed equilibrium in avariety of reaction systems. We will assume an understanding of the postulates of the Kinetic Molecular Theory and of the energetics of chemical reactions.

Goals

We have developed an understanding of the concept of equilibrium, both for phase equilibrium and reactionequilibrium. As an illustration, at normal atmospheric pressure, we expect to find H 2 O in solid form below 0°C, in liquid form below 100°C, and in gaseous form above 100°C. What changes as we movefrom low temperature to high temperature cause these transitions in which phase is observed? Viewed differently, if a sample of gaseouswater at 120°C is cooled to below 100°C, virtually all of the water vapor spontaneously condenses to form theliquid: H 2 O ( g ) H 2 O ( l ) spontaneous below100°C By contrast, very little of liquid water at 80°C spontaneously converts to gaseous water: H 2 O ( l ) H 2 O ( g ) not spontaneous below100°C We can thus rephrase our question as, what determines which processes are spontaneous and which are not? Whatfactors determine what phase is "stable"?

As we know, at certain temperatures and pressures, more than one phase can be stable. For example, at 1 atmpressure and 0°C, H 2 O ( s ) H 2 O ( l ) equilibrium at 0°C Small variations in the amount of heat applied or extracted to the liquid-solid equilibrium cause shifts towardsliquid or solid without changing the temperature of the two phases at equilibrium. Therefore, when the two phases are at equilibrium,neither direction of the phase transition is spontaneous at 0°C. We therefore need to understand what factors determinewhen two or more phases can co-exist at equilibrium.

This analysis leaves unanswered a series of questions regarding the differences between liquids and gases. Theconcept of a gas phase or a liquid phase is not a characteristic of an individual molecule. In fact, it does not make any sense torefer to the "phase" of an individual molecule. The phase is a collective property of large numbers of molecules.Although we can discuss the importance of molecular properties regarding liquid and gas phases, we have not discussed the factorswhich determine whether the gas phase or the liquid phase is most stable at a given temperature and pressure.

These same questions can be applied to reaction equilibrium. When a mixture of reactants and products isnot at equilibrium, the reaction will occur spontaneously in one direction or the other until the reaction achieves equilibrium.What determines the direction of spontaneity? What is the driving force towards equilibrium? How does the system know that equilibrium has been achieved? Our goal will be to understand the driving forces behind spontaneousprocesses and the determination of the equilibrium point, both for phase equilibrium and reaction equilibrium.

Observation 1: spontaneous mixing

We begin by examining common characteristics of spontaneous processes, and for simplicity, we focus on processesnot involving phase transitions or chemical reactions. A very clear example of such a process is mixing. Imagine putting a drop of blueink in a glass of water. At first, the blue dye in the ink is highly concentrated. Therefore, the molecules of the dye areclosely congregated. Slowly but steadily, the dye begins to diffuse throughout the entire glass of water, so that eventually the waterappears as a uniform blue color. This occurs more readily with agitation or stirring but occurs spontaneously even without sucheffort. Careful measurements show that this process occurs without a change in temperature, so there is no energy input or releasedduring the mixing.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
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Source:  OpenStax, General chemistry ii. OpenStax CNX. Mar 25, 2005 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10262/1.2
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