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In a previous study, we developed the concept of electronegativity. An atom with a high electronegativity strongly attracts the shared electrons to itself in a covalent bond. The atom with the lower electronegativity in the bond more weakly attracts the shared electrons. The result is that the bond is “polar,” meaning that one end of the bond is negatively charged and the other end is positively charged. We will assume a previous understanding of the variations of electronegativity amongst the elements. Atoms to the right in the Periodic table have higher electronegativities than those to the left. And atoms in the earlier rows of the Periodic Table have higher electronegativities than those in the later rows. Electronegativity thus generally increases from “left to right” and “down to up” in the Periodic Table. These facts will be extremely useful in understanding how and why different types and combinations of atoms form different types of bonds.

Observation 1: properties of metals

Historically, people have worked to locate, isolate, and purify metals because of their valuable properties. Most metals are both strong and malleable solids, meaning that they can be shaped, bent, pressed, flattened, and so forth without cracking or breaking. This is a very useful property. Shelters, shields, tools, and armor can be made from solids provided that they can be bent to whatever shape is desired. Since they are not brittle, metals do not break on impact so they provide excellent protection as well as excellent materials for weapons.

In the age of electricity, many metals became more valuable due to their conductivity . When a piece of metal is bridged across an electric potential, electrons flow from the negative electrode to the positive electrode, creating a current with obvious applications. By contrast, non-metals are rarely conductors and are more typically insulators. Adding to the applications of metals for electricity, metals are also ductile, meaning that they can be drawn into thin wires while maintaining strength.

And not least, most metals are actually quite attractive, with shiny, smooth, colorful finishes. This gives metals intrinsic value in addition to their usefulness. It is not surprising that gold, silver, and copper have long been used for coins and jewelry, given their beauty and their resistance to oxidation.

We can examine these properties of metals to try to understand how metal atoms are bonded together. The distinct properties of metals tells us that the bonding must be quite different from that in the covalent molecules of the non-metals we have been studying so far. These differences must relate to the differences in the properties of the individual atoms. So let’s take a look at those properties.

Perhaps the most important atomic property is, as we often have seen, the ionization energy of each metal atom. [link] shows the first ionization energy for each atom in the third and fourth rows of the Periodic Table, including both metals and non-metals. What trends do we see in these data? Two trends appear very clearly. One trend is that the ionization energies of metals are significantly lower than the ionization energies of the non-metals. Another trend is that the ionization energies of the metals do not vary much from metal to metal. This is very different from the sharp increases we see in the non-metals as we move across the periodic table.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry 2012. OpenStax CNX. Aug 16, 2012 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11444/1.4
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