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In a previous study, we developed the concept of electronegativity. An atom with a high electronegativity strongly attracts the shared electrons to itself in a covalent bond. The atom with the lower electronegativity in the bond more weakly attracts the shared electrons. The result is that the bond is “polar,” meaning that one end of the bond is negatively charged and the other end is positively charged. We will assume a previous understanding of the variations of electronegativity amongst the elements. Atoms to the right in the Periodic table have higher electronegativities than those to the left. And atoms in the earlier rows of the Periodic Table have higher electronegativities than those in the later rows. Electronegativity thus generally increases from “left to right” and “down to up” in the Periodic Table. These facts will be extremely useful in understanding how and why different types and combinations of atoms form different types of bonds.

Observation 1: properties of metals

Historically, people have worked to locate, isolate, and purify metals because of their valuable properties. Most metals are both strong and malleable solids, meaning that they can be shaped, bent, pressed, flattened, and so forth without cracking or breaking. This is a very useful property. Shelters, shields, tools, and armor can be made from solids provided that they can be bent to whatever shape is desired. Since they are not brittle, metals do not break on impact so they provide excellent protection as well as excellent materials for weapons.

In the age of electricity, many metals became more valuable due to their conductivity . When a piece of metal is bridged across an electric potential, electrons flow from the negative electrode to the positive electrode, creating a current with obvious applications. By contrast, non-metals are rarely conductors and are more typically insulators. Adding to the applications of metals for electricity, metals are also ductile, meaning that they can be drawn into thin wires while maintaining strength.

And not least, most metals are actually quite attractive, with shiny, smooth, colorful finishes. This gives metals intrinsic value in addition to their usefulness. It is not surprising that gold, silver, and copper have long been used for coins and jewelry, given their beauty and their resistance to oxidation.

We can examine these properties of metals to try to understand how metal atoms are bonded together. The distinct properties of metals tells us that the bonding must be quite different from that in the covalent molecules of the non-metals we have been studying so far. These differences must relate to the differences in the properties of the individual atoms. So let’s take a look at those properties.

Perhaps the most important atomic property is, as we often have seen, the ionization energy of each metal atom. [link] shows the first ionization energy for each atom in the third and fourth rows of the Periodic Table, including both metals and non-metals. What trends do we see in these data? Two trends appear very clearly. One trend is that the ionization energies of metals are significantly lower than the ionization energies of the non-metals. Another trend is that the ionization energies of the metals do not vary much from metal to metal. This is very different from the sharp increases we see in the non-metals as we move across the periodic table.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry 2012. OpenStax CNX. Aug 16, 2012 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11444/1.4
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