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The methods in the interface should control access to, or provide a pathway to the private instance variables.

Not bound to the implementation

The interface should be generic in that it is not bound to any particular implementation. Hence, the class author should be able to change theimplementation without affecting the using programs so long as the interface doesn't change.

In practice, this means that the signatures of the interface methods should not change, and that the interface methods and their arguments should continueto have the same meaning even if the author of the class changes the internal implementation.


I will present and explain a simple C# console program named Probs01 that illustrates encapsulation and C# properties in the remainder of this module. Theoutput from the program is shown in Figure 1 .

Figure 1 . Output from the program named Props01.

text: Quit color: Redcolor: Bad color height: 20double height: 40 height: 0

Discussion and sample code

Will explain in fragments

I will explain the code in this program in fragments. A complete listing of the program is provided in Listing 11 near the end of the module.

Two classes

The program contains two separate class definitions. One class, named TargetClass , illustrates encapsulation and properties. The other class named Props01 instantiates an object of TargetClass and exercises its interface. For simplicity, both classes were defined in thesame physical file, but that is not a requirement.

Will switch between classes

In an attempt to help you understand how the program works, I will switch back and forth between the two classes showing the cause and effect relationshipbetween the code in one class and the code in the other class.

Listing 1 . Beginning of the class named Props01.

using System; namespace Props01{class Props01{ static void Main(string[]args){ TargetClass obj = new TargetClass();//Access a public instance variable obj.text = "Quit";Console.WriteLine("text: " + obj.text);

The declarations

The first two statements in Listing 1 apply equally to both classes. The first statement "uses" the namespace named System . This eliminates the requirement to qualify every reference to the Console class with the name of the namespace containing the Console class.

The second statement in Listing 1 establishes the namespace for the new program code, which is actually the name of the folder containing the sourcecode file.

Beginning of the class named Props01

The class definition for the class named Props01 begins with the keyword class shown in Listing 1 .

As you will see when we get to the end of the explanation, the only thing that is contained in this class is the Main method. The required signature for the Main method is shown in Listing 1 . I'm not going to explain all of the ramifications for the syntax of the method signature. At this point, I will simply tell you to memorize thesyntax.

The first statement in the Main method uses the new operator to instantiate an object of the class named TargetClass and save a reference to that object in a local reference variable named obj . This reference will be used later to access the object.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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