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Scandinavia

Coming from England, the potato reached Scandinavia in this century. (Ref. 8 )

Norway

Still under Danish rule, Norway was rapidly developing a sea trade and shipping industry, with particularly close commercial ties with England. Norway's chief contribution to the literature of the period was Ludvig Holberg, who wrote a number of comedies to be played in the first theater in Denmark.

Sweden

Since Sweden was occupied almost entirely in the early century with war, we shall first continue our special section on that war.

After termination of the Great Northern War, political power in Sweden shifted to the lower nobility and the rich merchants, who were prospering in trade and industry, exploiting the mineral resources of the country. The parliament became the center of political life, but it soon took on dishonest ways and fell in prestige so that Gustavus III became an absolute ruler once more in a golden interlude of intellectualism and art (1771-1792). In the meantime the Hats, a political party under French influence, had provoked another war against Russia, but after two years Sweden was again the loser and had lost still more territory in Finland.

Great men of Sweden in this century were Karl von Linn (Linnaeus), who established the modern binomial system of naming plants and animals and Anders Celsius, astronomer at the University of Uppsala. He also devised the centigrade scale thermometer.

Denmark

Some repetition of the material concerning the Great Northern War will be apparent, in this section. In 1699 Frederick IV, aged 28 years, had ascended to the throne of Denmark and with Peter the Great of Russia, aged 27 years and Augustus of Poland, 29, formed an alliance to obtain revenge for the actions of Sweden's 17 year old king, Karl XII. On the alliance's declaration of war, however, Karl immediately attacked Denmark, starting the Great Northern War. Sweden easily won those initial battles and continued conquering throughout eastern Europe for the next 10 years, as we have noted above.

After Karl was defeated at Poltava, however,-Frederick once more led Denmark and Norway into war on land and sea and the final peace did not come until 1721. The European powers at the peace table would not return both sides of the Sound to Denmark, because of the old grievance of the Sound Dues and they let Sweden keep Scania.

Frederick IV encouraged intellectual life, subsidizing the Norwegian poet and playwright, Ludvig Holberg. With budding intellectual life, industry also developed, including the still famous Royal Copenhagen Porcelain factory. After Frederick's death in 1728, a great fire swept Copenhagen in the reign of Christian VI. The latter was followed by Frederick V, who married the daughter of Britain's George II. Upon Frederick V's death in 1765 his mentally ill son became Christian VII, married to Caroline Matilda, sister of George III of England. Christian's physician, Struensee, became an all-powerful minister for a short period, but Andreas Peter Bernstorff replaced him as chief minister in 1773. After 1784 Christian's son and successor Frederick VI acted as regent and put through wide reforms, including the liberation of peasants from serfdom, clearing the way for the breaking up of large land-holdings and allowing improvements in farming methods. In 1792 Denmark became the first European country to prohibit the slave trade. Of interest is the fact that it was a Dane, Vitus Bering, who explored the northern seas and oceans for the Russian navy in the first half of the century. (Ref. 117 , 38 )

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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