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The Maya had a number of languages, all closely related but not mutually intelligible. There were two principal divisions - the lowlands groups, including Yucatec, Chol and Chorti - and the highlands (Guatemalan) which included Mam and Quiche. The educated Maya were profoundly intellectual and we have noted their mathematics ( 0 to 100 A.D. ) and astronomy ( A.D. 301 to 400 ) previously. A great renaissance of Mayan Culture now took place in the cities of Yucatan, gradually supplanting the importance of Peten, in the south. (Ref. 177 , 146 , 215 , 163 ) According to traditions, picture writings and Mexican manuscripts written after the conquest, the Toltecs

This suggests the probability of more continuity and interrelationships among the original Mexican populations than often stated. Modern histories do not mention the Toltecs as a separate people until about the 9th century.
were banished from their native country northwest of Mexico in 596 and proceeded southward. (Ref. 205 )

This century marks the beginning of Period V of Costa Rican prehistory, with each of three archaeological zones developing independently. In Guanacaste-Nicoya there was the beginning of the famous Nicoya polychrome pottery tradition which resembled Maya ceramics of the Late Classic period of Honduras and El Salvador. The progress in Panama seemed to come more or less to a halt and this country never developed any truly state-centered societies as seen farther north in Central America. (Ref. 266 )

South america

Northern and western south america

Along various parts of the Magdalena River Valley in Colombia and particularly near San Agustin are enormous piles of debris, some of which have been excavated revealing sculptured monoliths and the whole indicating a great ceremonial center something like a Maya complex. Radio-carbon datings indicate activity in this 6th century with continuation for another 1,000 years. Since it has some similarities to both the Olmecs and to Easter Island the question arises as to whether this astonishing statuary was local in origin or from migrating people from Central America or even from Polynesia. Just east of Popayan on the eastern hot-land part of Andean Columbia is an interior, isolated valley called "Tierradentro" where there are interesting monuments perhaps dating to this same era, although it may be a secondary society having existed a thousand years later. Accurate dating has not been accomplished. Tombs there have long ago been looted, probably of gold and jewels, but three dimensional statues reminiscent of Easter Island and representing anthropomorphic gods are comparable to those of San Agustin. (Ref. 62 )

Peru consisted of about nine separate regions, each with its own local art style in this century. The Moche, or their descendants, and the Nasca were supreme but other states of some consequence were Cajamarca, Recuary, Lima, Huarpa, Waru, Tiahuanaco and Atacameno, all of which used gold, silver and copper for tools as well as jewelry. In Ecuador, beginning about A.D. 500, there were people of the Milagro Culture, noted for elaborate work in gold and for artificial mounds for burial places and home sites. Some of the latter seem to be associated with ridge systems and others with rectangular earth- works, probably made to farm lands subject to seasonal flooding. This culture may have been an off-shoot of the Moche of Peru, described in previous chapters. Similar farming ridges cover many thousands of acres in Bolivia and Colombia and are present near Lake Titicaca, although the dating of these has not been done. (Ref. 9 , 62 )

Eastern south america

There were farming tribes in the Amazon rain forest, cultivating manioc. Farther south the Tuni-Guarania tribes had migrated from the Amazon basin into the Brazilian forest and savannah. In what in now Argentina, there was the Aguada Culture about A.D. 600, characterized by black and yellow pottery with feline motives. (Ref. 8 , 45 )

Forward to America: A.D. 601 to 700

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Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
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Adin Reply
?
Kyle
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Adin
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Adin
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Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
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Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
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characteristics of micro business
Abigail
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Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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