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Africa

Back to Africa: A.D. 101 to 200

Northeastern africa

The kingdom of Kush fell prey to desert nomads but in Ethiopia Axum continued as a powerful, well developed entity. Coins were minted and much of the Sudan to the west was conquered. Ivory, rhinoceros horn, hippopotamus hides and slaves were all exported through the Red Sea harbor of Adulis. Unfortunately even at this early period excessive rains with flooding, along with forest clearing and cultivation of hilltops and slopes had started soil erosion that was to eventually be part of the downfall of this unusual kingdom. (Ref. 175 , 270 )

Egyptian prestige

Diophantus, a Greek of Alexandria, wrote a treatise of algebra, solving determinant quadratic and indeterminate equations up to the 6th degree, in about A.D. 250.
began to decline under destructive factionalism, a massacre of all adult males capable of bearing arms (by Emperor Caracalla) to prevent revolt, high taxes, listless forced labor and Rome's annual exaction of grain. Sea trade from the Mediterranean went principally up the Nile to Thebes, then over to the Red Sea and on by boat. The refurbished Nile-Red Sea canal was a disappointment to the Romans (as it had been to the Ptolemies and the Persians) because winds in the northern Red Sea were unreliable and merchants did better with the Nile to Thebes route. At the last of the century (266 to 272), Queen Zenobia's conquering of Egypt and siege of Alexandria resulted in the death of half the population and helped Egypt's decline. (See IRAQ AND SYRIA, below) In A.D. 272 Egypt was reconquered by Rome. (Ref. 136 )

North central and northwestern africa

Rome continued to dominate the coast line of north Africa, but in the far northwest Moorish (chiefly Berber) culture and activity increased with expansion of the territory they controlled. The cities of the Sahara had a flourishing commerce with coastal cities, probably sending precious stones, slaves and ivory for trade. (Ref. 83 )

Subsaharan africa

At this time there was the beginning of the development of the Empire of Ghana at the northern curve of the Niger River. The village of Jenne-jeno, which we have previously mentioned, may have been a part of this process. On the east the iron and cattle cultures spread almost completely to the southern tip of Africa. Blackburn was established in A.D. 105 and the use of iron spread from the Funa River (off the Congo) to Katanga and the Lakes region. In the southwest, the Khoikoi peoples, speaking the Khoisan language, only slowly gave way to the aggressive Bantu-speakers. Indonesian traders appeared in increasing numbers along the east coast in this and the following centuries.

Forward to Africa: A.D. 301 to 400

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Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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