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Africa

Back to Africa: A.D. 1101 to 1200

Northeast africa

In the highlands of Ethiopia there were several Muslim sultanates. In Lasta, King Labibela, who gave his name to the capital city, is credited with 11 monumental rock-cut churches. Egyptian Coptic refugees were allegedly welcome here, as Labibela attempted to establish a "new Jerusalem". Juniper trees were planted (in place of cedars), a local stream was named the "Jordan River" and a grove of olives became the "Mount of Olives". (Ref. 270 ) Nearer the coast this rejuvenated dynasty line from the old Axumite kings gave way in 1270 to a new family claiming to be a restoration of the old Solomon line, calling themselves the Solomonid Dynasty. These Amharic-speaking people developed a true Ethiopian culture and came in conflict with the Muslim coastal states on the Horn of Africa, notably Adal. The Solomonid ruler became known as the "King of Kings" and had many vassal kings under him. Christianity in this area then began to absorb many Judaic and pagan practices from the mixed peoples living there. (Ref. 43 , 8 , 83 )

Nubia was invaded by Sultan Baibars of Egypt in the middle of the century and a puppet ruler was set up and tribute paid to the Mamluks.

The descendant of the Kurd, Saladin, ruled Egypt in the first third of this century and one of the greatest achievements of the time was the building of the Mansur Hospital in Cairo, a very large institution which had separate wards for different diseases such as fevers, eye problems, female disorders, etc. Ruling the country in about 1238, Sultan al-Salih, to augment his Turkoman army, purchased white slaves from the Mongols as they crossed southern Russia. These slaves were mixtures of Cumans, Circassians and Alans and they became the most powerful cavalry unit in the Egyptian army and were known as mamluks from the Arabic verb "to own". The practice of taking such men as royal bodyguards had been started by the caliphs of Baghdad, who could not trust even their own relatives. The last Egyptian sultan of the Kurd Ayyubin line died in 1249 and after a few murders, one of the white slave Mamluks named Aybak married Queen Shajar al-Durr, founded the Burji Dynasty and became the first Mamluk sultan of Egypt. After seven years Aybak made the mistake of trying to add a new wife, the daughter of the ruler of Mosul, Iraq. Queen Shajar al-Durr murdered him in his bath, but she, in turn, received the same type of death three days later from Aybak's loyal concubines. (Ref. 125 , 5 )

The Mamluk General Baibars (also Baybars) led an army through Palestine, thwarting the last of the Crusaders, and then went on to defeat his former captors in a great battle at Ain Jalut in 1260 and the Mongol advance was stopped. As a result of these victories Baibars was elevated to be sultan and he proceeded to be one of the most cruel, ambitious and yet able of the Mamluks. He traded ambassadors with the Mongol Berke in Russia and persuaded him to wage war against fellow Mongol Hulegu in the Middle East, thus pinching the latter's forces between them. He brought the last Abbasid caliph to Cairo from the destroyed Baghdad, set him up as a puppet and then proceeded to form a strong administration, reconstruct fortresses, roads, bridges and canals, although late in the century the old Necho canal from the Nile to Red Sea was filled in. He had a regular postal service between Egypt and his domains in Syria. At the height of his career, in 1277, he was poisoned. With the subsequent reign of Qalawun (1279-1290) the Bahri

"Bahri" means the "sea" and was the name given to the Mamluks who were stationed on the Island of Roda in the Nile by the last Kurd Sultan, Najm al-Din Ayyub. (Ref. 5 )
Mamluk Empire reached its height and the prosperity continued with his family successors until the middle of the next century. It was a period of a full treasury and resulting commissioning of great works of art, both secular and religious, including great palaces and mosques, manuscripts, glass vessels inlaid with gold and other treasures. (Ref. 137 , 5 )

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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