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Northeast africa

Back to Africa: 5000 to 3000 B.C.

Out on the horn of Africa, men in Somalia were producing frank incense and myrrh for sale to Egypt as early as 3,000 B.C. The Cushitic-speaking people continued expansion south of Egypt and into Nubia. Due to the change in the Sahara climate, more Negro and Sudanic people settled just west of the Cushites (also Kushites), increasing the population there (Ref. 8 ) Additional Notes

A map of Egypt of this period may be found in the early pages of the next chapter. The exact dating of the various dynasties and eras of ancient Egypt continue to be debated.

NOTE: Insert Map taken from Reference 97 (page 61)

The dates used in this manuscript are those given by Professor Easton in The Heritage of the Past (Ref. 57 ) and these are fairly well coordinated with those used in The Columbia History of the World (Ref. 68 ) and other recent publications. The first stone constructed sepulchre of pyramidal design was built at Saqqara, near Memphis, during the reign of Zoser (also Djoser), an early king of the 3rd dynasty, between 2,700 and 2,630 B.C. This was called the "Step Pyramid" and was actually the creation of Imhotep, chief minister of the king, a man who was later deified. Recent desert studies would suggest that this step pyramid and the larger ones to follow were actually shaped after nature's own desert, wind-swept dunes of the western desert. Sand-stone and solid rock mountains and dunes all seem to have naturally assumed a conical shape, as the winds spiral about them to exhaust their energy at the pointed top. It is very possible that the man-made structures were modeled after these natural ones, and it is said that a rocky knoll of unknown size underlies the Great Pyramid and that there is a natural stone out-cropping at the tomb of Queen Khent-Kawes. It is thus suggested that the ancients not only simply enlarged and refined already existing natural conical structures, but that the very nature of these shapes have allowed them to withstand the winds and sand storms of all the ages since they were built

The conical shapes of primitive shelters from the American Indian tepees to African and Arabian Desert tents and Mongolian and Kazak yurts in central Asia may all resist the winds in the same way (Ref. 59 )
. Still more intriguing is the finding in the desert of forms very much like the sphinx, indicating that where constantly directed winds hit certain geological formations an unusual shape somewhat like that of a reclining dog with raised head, is formed.

Can the sphinx simply be a dressed-up natural formation of this type? Similar shapes have been found in the desert as far back as 1909 (Ref. 59 , 243 ) and there are suggestions of the same phenomenon in parts of Utah today. Copper mines were developed in the Sinai by Pharaoh Snefu, a successor of Zoser. He also used large ships to increase sea trade (Ref. 222 ).

Bronze was in use in Egypt by 3,000 B.C. and the great pyramids were started about 2,600 B.C. in the time of Cheops of the 4th dynasty

Thomas (Ref. 213 , page 32) dates the Great Pyramid at 2,900 B.C. and comments on its exactly squared base, the 50 degree slope of all surfaces and the fact that the stones are so well fitted together that a blade cannot be inserted between them
. Because of the fertility of the Nile flood basins in this 3rd millennium, the average peasant produced three times as much food as his family needed and thus he was capable of feeding the flood control workers and the builders of public buildings and Pharaoh’s tombs. The first wooden boats were made in exact imitation of the old reed boats. An entire such vessel of Cheops', dating to 2,700 B.C., has recently been excavated from his pyramid. It has a length of 143 feet and appears more graceful than a later Viking ship, but could only have been used for ceremonies on the smooth Nile, as it had no internal ribs and could not have survived ocean sailing. Only the papyrus ships from which it was copied could withstand the ocean waves.

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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