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Back to Africa: 100 B.C to 0

Northeast africa

In the south of this region the kingdom of Meroe continued its iron-making and gold production, unmolested. The kingdom of Axum in north Ethiopia and southwestern Arabia now became a strong empire, with a capital city of the same name and Adulis (now Massawa) as the Red Sea port and with a wealth founded on ivory. Axum was a pagan city of palaces and temples which now had many Jew

The Falasha of today are the descendants of these Jews (Ref. 83 )
and Greek immigrants. The country had many Greek insignias and a Greek educated king. (Ref. 45 , 175 , 83 )

Egypt continued under Roman rule. In Alexandria the Jewish population increased reaching perhaps to 40% of the total of the city. Among those was the Jewish philosopher and theologian, Philo, who developed the Logos ideas of the Greek Stoics into a concept which has come straight down through the centuries in the Christian theology. "God, in Philo's writings, is the essential being of the world, incorporeal, eternal, indescribable; reason can know his existence, but can ascribe no quality to him--."

As quoted from Durant (Ref. 48 ), page 501
In order to create the world and establish relations with man, Philo felt that God used a group of intermediary beings. While these had been called diamones by some Greeks and Ideas by Plato, they were called angels by the Jews. Although popularly conceived as persons, Philo thought they existed only in the Divine Minds as the thoughts and powers of God, such powers as the Stoics called Logos, which created and then guided the world. "Philo sometimes thinks of the Logos as a person. In a poetic moment he called the Logos 'The first-begotten of God', son of God by the virgin Wisdom, and says that through the Logos God has revealed himself to man. Since the soul is part of God, it can through reason rise to a mystic vision, not quite of God, but of Logos
The translations of these ancient writing are those of Fell (Ref. 86 ), page 54, and to my knowledge not otherwise confirmed
. Durant (Ref. 48 ) felt that Philo's Logos was one of the most influential ideas in the history of thought, although its antecedents in Heracleitus, Plato and the Stoics are obvious. "Philo was a contemporary of Christ, but he apparently never heard of him although he shared unknowingly in forming Christian theology. Philo tried to mediate between Hellenism and Judaism. From the Judaic point of view he failed; from the historical point of view he succeeded, and the result was the first chapter of the Gospel of John”.
Quotation taken from Durant (Ref. 48 ), page 502

During the period of the Roman administration of Egypt the irrigation systems were raised to great efficiency. While the government remained Roman, the people remained Egyptian (and Jewish in the cities). Additional Notes

North central and northwest africa

Roman Carthage was the capital of proconsular Africa and second only to Rome, itself, in the western Mediterranean. It became a center for education and soon a strong- hold for early Christianity. Plutarch, living in this century, allegedly described voyages of the Carthaginians to North America (Epeiros, in his language) via Iceland (Ogygia) and a return route following the anti-trade winds around latitude 40 degrees north, back to Spain and Carthage. Diodorus of Sicily described a southern route when he spoke of the discovery of an island by Carthaginians which may have been Cuba. (Ref. 84 , 66 )

The ruler of Mauretania (northern Morocco and western Algeria), another Ptolemy, was murdered in A.D. 40 on the order of the Roman Caligula, but it did not destroy the Berber spirit of independence and they never completely gave up to the Romans. The dromedary, one-hump camels first were brought to the Sahara in this century but they were not used to any great extent for another seven hundred years with the Arab invasion. (Ref. 260 )

Subsaharan africa

In West Africa on the inland delta of the great Niger River there existed at this time, and probably it had existed for over two hundred years, the village of Jenne-jeno, which has just recently been excavated. Situated only about 300 miles up river from Timbuktu it is probable that even in this early time there were beginning trade relationships by water. Pottery in use through this period was of a design seen several centuries earlier in the southern Sahara, indicating that the original population may have originated there. We shall hear much more about this community which did not reach its peak of development until about A.D. 100. (Ref. 268 )

Madagascar had probably been unknown to men until about the time of Christ, when Indonesians arrived with out-rigger canoes and eventually sails. Beginning in this century these sea-farers brought "wet-zone" crops like the Asian and Coco yams and banana to Madagascar and thus to East Africa

Hallett (Ref. 83 ) puts this at the 4th century C.E.
. Madagascar had probably been unknown to men until about the time of Christ, when the Indonesians arrived with out-rigger canoes and eventually sails. With their new crops the Negroes found it possible to start moving into the humid forests and low-lying river valleys, thus beginning the settlement of more central Africa. The Bantu-speaking people continued their slow migration down the east coast of Africa. There was iron smelting in Kenya by A.D. 100. (Ref. 222 )

Forward to Africa: A.D. 101 to 200

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  • The Near East
  • Pacific

From this century on until the 19th century first the Aksumite and then the Christian Amhara were expansionist, seizing land and incorporating people. (Ref. 311 )

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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