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Africa

Back to Africa: A.D. 101 to 200

Northeastern africa

The kingdom of Kush fell prey to desert nomads but in Ethiopia Axum continued as a powerful, well developed entity. Coins were minted and much of the Sudan to the west was conquered. Ivory, rhinoceros horn, hippopotamus hides and slaves were all exported through the Red Sea harbor of Adulis. Unfortunately even at this early period excessive rains with flooding, along with forest clearing and cultivation of hilltops and slopes had started soil erosion that was to eventually be part of the downfall of this unusual kingdom. (Ref. 175 , 270 )

Egyptian prestige

Diophantus, a Greek of Alexandria, wrote a treatise of algebra, solving determinant quadratic and indeterminate equations up to the 6th degree, in about A.D. 250.
began to decline under destructive factionalism, a massacre of all adult males capable of bearing arms (by Emperor Caracalla) to prevent revolt, high taxes, listless forced labor and Rome's annual exaction of grain. Sea trade from the Mediterranean went principally up the Nile to Thebes, then over to the Red Sea and on by boat. The refurbished Nile-Red Sea canal was a disappointment to the Romans (as it had been to the Ptolemies and the Persians) because winds in the northern Red Sea were unreliable and merchants did better with the Nile to Thebes route. At the last of the century (266 to 272), Queen Zenobia's conquering of Egypt and siege of Alexandria resulted in the death of half the population and helped Egypt's decline. (See IRAQ AND SYRIA, below) In A.D. 272 Egypt was reconquered by Rome. (Ref. 136 )

North central and northwestern africa

Rome continued to dominate the coast line of north Africa, but in the far northwest Moorish (chiefly Berber) culture and activity increased with expansion of the territory they controlled. The cities of the Sahara had a flourishing commerce with coastal cities, probably sending precious stones, slaves and ivory for trade. (Ref. 83 )

Subsaharan africa

At this time there was the beginning of the development of the Empire of Ghana at the northern curve of the Niger River. The village of Jenne-jeno, which we have previously mentioned, may have been a part of this process. On the east the iron and cattle cultures spread almost completely to the southern tip of Africa. Blackburn was established in A.D. 105 and the use of iron spread from the Funa River (off the Congo) to Katanga and the Lakes region. In the southwest, the Khoikoi peoples, speaking the Khoisan language, only slowly gave way to the aggressive Bantu-speakers. Indonesian traders appeared in increasing numbers along the east coast in this and the following centuries.

Forward to Africa: A.D. 301 to 400

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Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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