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Back to America: A.D. 1601 to 1700

North america

Canada and the far north

When Vitus Bering found the strait which bears his name he also explored the Aleutian chain of islands and the Alaska shores, living on sea otters and starting a new fur trade. By 1745 ruthless Russian hunters were established on Attu Island, where they killed all male Aleuts and took their women. Later, however, they found that they had to keep Aleut males to help them hunt the otters in their ulluxtadags (similar to Eskimo kayaks) with harpoons and they then merged and lived together with the Aleuts. In 1784 Grigorii Shelekhov established a settlement on Kodiak Island and founded what became the Russian-American Company. They obtained otter and seal pelts, using 7,200 Aleuts to hunt full-time and taking 300 others as hostages to ensure work from the first group. This broke up the Aleut families and then disease appeared, so that in the two generations at the end of the century, the Aleut population fell by nearly two-thirds. (Ref. 234 , 199 ) Shelekhov was followed by Alexander Baranov, who greeted British ships and found English, American and even a few Spanish skippers had been trading for furs some 1,100 miles south. In 1799 he sailed along the shore with 450 two-man kayaks to establish a colony on Baranov Island, just 6 miles above a Tlingits Indian stronghold at what is now Sitka, Alaska. Those Tlingits had inhabited the lower coastal area of the Alaskan panhandle for a long period and had a high culture, living in gabled lodges housing a dozen families and producing canoes holding 60 men. One of their better known features were their 50 feet tall totem poles. North of the Tlingits were the Eskimoes along the Arctic shoreline living, as the Aleuts on the islands, by hunting chiefly seals and walruses. In central Alaska were the Athabascan Indians, bearing no cultural resemblance to the coastal people. They are linguistic cousins of the Apaches and Navajos and lived in small nomadic bands in bare simplicity, existing chiefly on the caribou. They did create the snow-shoe to facilitate getting about in deep snow. (Ref. 234 ) Additional Notes

By 1745 when the Russians were already well established in the Aleutians, the English had only a handful of isolated trading posts west of Hudson Bay. (Ref. 8 ) On the west coast of Canada, Don Juan Francisco de la Bodega sailed the "Sonora" beyond the 56th degree latitude and examined the coast belonging to Russia,- which is now the upper of British Columbia. Then in 1778 while Captain Cook was sailing up the coast to reach the Aleutians, he incidentally discovered Nootka sound on Vancouver Island. Spanish historians claim, however, that Juan Perez had discovered this sound previously in 1774.

On the Atlantic side, in 1711 Britain attempted to take French Quebec and Canada, by sending seven regiments of Marlborough's best, along with 1,500 colonials into the St. Lawrence. Ten of their ships were sunk and the expedition f ailed. The war in Europe ended 2 years later, however, and France's position in southeastern Canada was greatly weakened by the Treaty of Utrecht, which terminated the War of the Spanish Succession, or Queen Anne's war, as it was called in America. (Ref. 222 ) France lost Newfoundland,

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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