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Non-positive or non-significant findings related to class size studies

Not all researchers have determined positive significance related to class size. For example, Jiang and Ting (2000) analyzed 19 online courses and compared class size to variables of students’ perceptions of (a) achievement, (b) level of interaction with the instructor, and (c) level of interaction with other students, as well as the number of notes written by the instructor. No significant correlations were found between class size and any of the four variables listed. Arbaugh and Duray (2001) found that class section size was negatively associated with student learning using a sample of courses with enrollments of up to 50 students. In other studies with class sizes of 30 or fewer students, it has been determined that class size was not a significant predictor of student learning or satisfaction (Arbaugh, 2002). Drago and Peltier (2004) studied the effect of class size on the evaluation of teaching effectiveness. The class sizes among 31 online business courses ranged from 22 students to 83 students. They determined that size had little impact on overall course effectiveness; however, data were limited by a potential non-response bias in that only 53% of the students returned the survey.

Concluding remarks

Only a handful of researchers since 2000 have attempted to determine optimum class size in online courses. Of those published studies, perhaps only one or two of the studies can be considered generalizable. This is the first gap in knowledge—a lack of generalizable studies published for consumption and adoption. Numbers of students in online sections, based on anecdotal data (excluding extreme outliers) appear to mirror the numbers of class sizes reported within the available studies as noted in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Numbers of students in online classes mentioned in anecdotal and research studies with the exception of major outliers of over 2000.

More stringent research studies are needed in terms of understanding the optimum number of students for an online class. The second gap in knowledge, therefore, is the need for the development of a formula for determining optimum class size under specific and varied conditions in higher education. Probably most important to the research of online class size is the impact it is having on learning outcomes. That represents a third gap in knowledge related to online class size. Finally, since this review is appearing in a handbook related to the educational administration discipline, we must add a fourth gap. There are no researchers who have provided data, to date, on class size optimization in educational administration programs. Certainly, these gaps in the literature on online class size are-- as Li and Irby (2006) indicated-- “undiscovered territory waiting to be explored” (p. 457).


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Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
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Stoney Reply
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Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
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biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
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Damian Reply
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it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
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s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
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carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
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Smarajit Reply
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