# 0.8 Signal processing in processing: miscellanea  (Page 3/5)

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## Histogram-based processing.

Image Histograms
Graphic representation by means of vertical bars, where each bar represents the number of pixels present in the image for a given intensity of the gray scale (or color channel). Wikipedia definition.

Among the examples in Processing , one finds the code Histogram that overlap an image to its own histogram.

The histogram offers a synthetic representation of images, in which one looses the information concerning the pixel positions and considers only the chromatic aspects. This provides information about the Tonal Gamma of an image (gray intensity that are present) and about the Dynamics (extension of the Tonal Gamma). The image of a chess board, for example, has a Tonal Gamma that includes only two gray levels (black and white) but it has a maximal dynamics (since white and black are the two extremity of the representable gray levels).

The histogram is the starting point for various processing effects aiming at balancing or altering the chromatic contents of an image. In general,the question is building a map ${g}_{o}=f({g}_{i})$ for the gray levels (or color-channel levels) that can be applied to each pixel. The histogram can drive the definition of this map.

## Translation and expansion of an histogram

If the map is of the kind ${g}_{o}={g}_{i}+k$ the histogram is translated in the sense of a higher or lower brightness, according to the sign of $k$ . On the other side, if the map is of the kind ${g}_{o}=k{g}_{i}$ the histogram will be expanded or compressed, for values of $k$ smaller or greater than $1$ , respectively.

The contrast stretching is one of the operations of this kind of linear scaling that tries to extend the dynamic range of an image. The intervalby means of which one performs the scaling is set on the basis of the histogram, neglecting, for example, thetails of the distribution corresponding to $10%$ of the darkest and brightest pixels.

## Non linear scaling

More in general, the map ${g}_{o}=f({g}_{i})$ can be non linear, and this allows a greater flexibility in the manipulation of the histogram. A usefulinstrument is the one that allows to manipulate interactively the scaling map and to see the results on the image and/oron the histogram in real time. The instrument Color Tools/Curves of the image processing software Gimp does this, using an interpolating spline. In Processing it is possible to build a similar instrument, as reported in [link] .

## Equalization of an histogram

The non linear scaling is the tool to equalize the histogram, that is to shape it in a desirable way. An image has a balanced tonal gamma, if all of the gray levels arerepresented and if the distribution is approximately uniform. In other words, one aims at a flat histogram. Without entering too much into the mathematicaldetails, one can say that the non linear map to be used for the equalization is obtained from the cumulated distribution of the histogram of the image $f({g}_{i})=\sum_{k=0}^{{g}_{i}} h(k)$ , where $h(k)$ is the frequency, properly scaled by means of a normalization constant, with which the $k$ -th gray level appears .

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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