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Alternative conformations for HIV-1 protease. Tube representation of HIV-1 protease (PDB codes 4HVP and 1AID) bound to different inhibitors represented by spheres. The plasticity of the binding site of the protein allows the protease to change its shape in order to accommodate ligands with widely different shapes and volumes.

Applying the PCA procedure as outlined before to a set of HIV-1 samples from simulation produces 1,782-dimensional principal components. Since the physical interpretation of the PCs is quite intuitive in this case, the PC coordinates can be split in groups of 3 to obtain the (x,y,z) components for each of the 594 atoms. These components are 3-dimensional vectors that point in the direction each atom would follow along the first PC. In figure 6 a), the per-atom components of the first PC have been superimposed in purple.

First mode of motion for the HIV-1 protease. a) The purple arrows are a convenient representation of the first PC grouped every 3 coordinates -(x,y,z) for each atom- to indicate the linear path each atom would follow. Note that the "flaps" have the most important motion component, which is consistent with the simulation data. b) A reference structure (middle) can be interpolated along the first PC in a negative direction (left) or a positive one (right). Using only one degree of freedom, the flap motion can be approximated quite accurately.

Figure 6 b) shows the effect of interpolating HIV-1 conformations along the first PC, or first mode of motion. Starting from an aligned conformation from the original data set, multiples of the first PC can be added to produce interpolated conformations. Note that the first mode of motion corresponds mostly to the "opening" and "closing" of the flaps, as can be inferred from the relative magnitued of the first PC components in the flap region. Thus, interpolating in the direction of the first PC produces an approximation of this motion, but using only one degree of freedom. This way, the complex dynamics of the system and the 1,782 apparent degrees of freedom have been approximated by just one, effectively reducing the dimensionality of the representation.

The residual variance (solid line) and percentage of overall variance explained (dashed line) after each principal component.

Figure 7 (solid line) shows the residual variance left unexplained by discarding the lower-ranked principal components. Residual variance plots always decrease, and in this case, the first PC accounts for approximately 40% of the total variance along the motion (the dashed line shows the percentage of total variance explained up to the given PC). Also, the first 10 PCs account for more than 70% of the total data variance. Given the dominance of only a few degrees of freedom it is possible to represent the flexibility of the protein in a drastically reduced search space.

Non-linear methods

PCA falls in the category of what is called a linear method, since mathematically, the PCs are computed as a series of linear operations on the input coordinates. Linear methods such as PCA work well only when the collective atom motions are small (or linear), which is hardly the case for most interesting biological processes. Non-linear dimensionality reduction methods do exist, but are normally much more computationally expensive and have other disadvantages as well. However, non-linear methods are much more effective in describing complex processes using much fewer parameters.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Geometric methods in structural computational biology. OpenStax CNX. Jun 11, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10344/1.6
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