# Introduction and concepts

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## Electrolytes, ionisation and conductivity

Conductivity in aqueous solutions, is a measure of the ability of water to conduct an electric current. The more ions there are in the solution, the higher its conductivity.

Conductivity
Conductivity is a measure of a solution's ability to conduct an electric current.

## Electrolytes

An electrolyte is a material that increases the conductivity of water when dissolved in it. Electrolytes can be further divided into strong electrolytes and weak electrolytes .

Electrolyte
An electrolyte is a substance that contains free ions and behaves as an electrically conductive medium. Because they generally consist of ions in solution, electrolytes are also known as ionic solutions.
1. Strong electrolytes A strong electrolyte is a material that ionises completely when it is dissolved in water:
$\mathrm{AB \left(s, l, g\right)}\to {\mathrm{A}}^{+}\mathrm{\left(aq\right)}+{\mathrm{B}}^{-}\mathrm{\left(aq\right)}$
This is a chemical change because the original compound has been split into its component ions and bonds have been broken. In a strong electrolyte, we say that the extent of ionisation is high. In other words, the original material dissociates completely so that there is a high concentration of ions in the solution. An example is a solution of potassium nitrate:
${\mathrm{KNO}}_{3}\mathrm{\left(s\right)}\to {\mathrm{K}}^{+}\mathrm{\left(aq\right)}+{\mathrm{NO}}_{3}^{-}\mathrm{\left(aq\right)}$
2. Weak electrolytes A weak electrolyte is a material that goes into solution and will be surrounded by water molecules when it is added to water. However, not all of the molecules will dissociate into ions. The extent of ionisation of a weak electrolyte is low and therefore the concentration of ions in the solution is also low.
$AB\left(s,l,g\right)\to AB\left(aq\right)⇌{A}^{+}\left(\mathrm{aq}\right)+{B}^{-}\left(\mathrm{aq}\right)$
The following example shows that in the final solution of a weak electrolyte, some of the original compound plus some dissolved ions are present.
${C}_{2}{H}_{3}{O}_{2}H\left(l\right)\to {C}_{2}{H}_{3}{O}_{2}H⇌{C}_{2}{H}_{3}{O}_{2}^{-}\left(\mathrm{aq}\right)+{H}^{+}\left(\mathrm{aq}\right)$

## Non-electrolytes

A non-electrolyte is a material that does not increase the conductivity of water when dissolved in it. The substance goes into solution and becomes surrounded by water molecules, so that the molecules of the chemical become separated from each other. However, although the substance does dissolve, it is not changed in any way and no chemical bonds are broken. The change is a physical change . In the oxygen example below, the reaction is shown to be reversible because oxygen is only partially soluble in water and comes out of solution very easily.

${C}_{2}{H}_{5}\mathrm{OH}\left(l\right)\to {C}_{2}{H}_{5}\mathrm{OH}\left(\mathrm{aq}\right)$
${O}_{2}\left(g\right)⇌{O}_{2}\left(\mathrm{aq}\right)$

## Factors that affect the conductivity of water

The conductivity of water is therefore affected by the following factors:

• The type of substance that dissolves in water. Whether a material is a strong electrolyte (e.g. potassium nitrate, ${\mathrm{KNO}}_{3}$ ), a weak electrolyte (e.g. acetate, ${\mathrm{CH}}_{3}\mathrm{COOH}$ ) or a non-electrolyte (e.g. sugar, alcohol, oil) will affect the conductivity of water because the concentration of ions in solution will be different in each case.
• The concentration of ions in solution. The higher the concentration of ions in solution, the higher its conductivity will be.
• Temperature. The warmer the solution, the higher the solubility of the material being dissolved and therefore the higher the conductivity as well.

what is economic
Economics is the study of how Individual consumer, institution and society as a whole uses its available finite resources to satisfy infinite needs and wants
Richard
other things remain constant.
explain scarcity
scarcity occurs when there are not enough resources to satisfy human's needs and wants therefore we need to allocate our resources using the price mechanism.
Isha
scarcity is when there is inadequate resources to catch the unlimited wants which would compel individual to make choice.
Prince
scarcity simply means when there's a shortages of resources to satisfy Hunan's need and wants in a particular time, which means the demand for it at the moment is higher than the supply
Abu
scarcity simply means when there's a shortages of resources to satisfy humans need and wants in a particular time, which means the demand for it at the moment is higher than it supply.
Abu
😂😂😂
Isha
That escalated real quick😂
Isha
scarcity is sometimes considered as the basic problems of economics resources r scarce because we live in a world of humans in which wants are infinite but the land labor and capital r required to satisfy those wants are limited
Nkwenti
scarcity means unlimited resources
Rena
joint or complementary demand
what is demand
it maybe define as the amount or quantity of goods and services which a consumer is willing to buy with the ability to pay at a given price at a particular time
Habib
yesoo thanks dear
Gyamfua
why is economics a science
Because science is all about thinking by making models whether a computational or Mathematical. Economics is a social sciences because it effects society but to understand Economics we use maths so it is a Science
Amit
hi
Mony
hello
Amit
I hope.......Economic is social science because it makes new new currency of money,it is decided the country’s depend system and the system be repeated others benefits in our ...
Anik
yeah
Habib
so what is the disadvantages of mix economic system
Habib
Economics is regarded as a social science because it uses scientific methods to build theories that can help explain the behaviour of individuals, groups and organisations.
Ali
The question is: why is Economic a "science" and not why is economics a "social science?" Alright folks?
Xavier
In my own understanding of why economics is a science it bcz it deals mainly on human resources just like biology that deals in the human body why economics is science it also deals on the management of human resources all over the world bcz without economics there will be no human resources
Ogbonnaya
what is technology
Nkwenti
my response to the earlier question is, economics is a science but not a pure science like biology, chemistry and physics. The reason is that those pure science study inanimate object while economics study human being, their experiment are predictable.
raimi
Economics is a social science subject that shows the relationship between ends and scarce means with their alternative uses
Ajenifuja
what is Equilibrium?
it means equal price and equal quality
Arthur
thank u Arthur!
Fatima
😇🙏
Fatima
Thanks
Moses
Equilibrium is a state of balance in an economy. In as far as market forces are reasonably concerned, equilibrium means the state at which the quantity of goods supplied is equal to the quantity of goods demanded.
Xavier
what is labour
Ayham
labor can be define as a both physical and mental effort of man put forward towards production
Habib
name the types of demand and explain any two
ALIMAMYISLA
Joint demand Composite demand Competitive demand
Ajenifuja
Labourcan be defined as man mental and physical exertion
Ajenifuja
equilibrium is a state of balance especially between opposing forces or influences
Nkwenti
what is elasticity
difference between demand and supply
Demand- It is the desire of a buyer and his ability to pay for a particular commodity at a specific price. Supply- It is quantity of a commodity which is made available by the producers to its consumers at certain price.
Ali
yes OK thank you dear
Gyamfua
Demand can be defined as the ability a buyer is willing and able to pay at a specific price and in agiven period of time Supply can be defined as the ability the producer is willing to supply with a specific price
Ajenifuja
thanks
antony
what is labor force
Habib
demand represents the consumer while supply represents the firm
Nkwenti
formula for price elasticity of demand
cost advantage is an advantage that the firm has over competitors in terms of costs absolute advantage is d ability of an individual company, region,or country to produce a greater quantity of a good of service with the same quantity of inputs per unit per time
Nkwenti
what is ceteris paribus
Uchaash
other things remain constant.
Esale
can you explain in more details about ceteris paribus?
Uchaash
what is demand
demand can be defined as the quantity of a commodity which people are willing to buy at particular times and at a given price .
YAHA
you are talking about campaney in my self ihave campaney why don't you calculated my business
The fundamental frequency of a sonometer wire streached by a load of relative density 's'are n¹ and n² when the load is in air and completly immersed in water respectively then the lation n²/na is
Properties of longitudinal waves