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Feature separation

The neural network must be fed meaningful information. If there are not clusters within the data and distinguishing relationships between features, than there is nothing for the neural network to learn. Here we show that the features extracted from the LPC are in fact providing useful information to the neural network. A subset of four emotions has been selected for visual clarity. They have been normalized by mean and variance to generate a roughly Gaussian distribution of the frequency location of the fourth formant. Notice that the mean, variance, and skewness of each of the four probability density functions is are distinct.

Computation complexity

This algorithmic pipeline involves a significant number of computationally heavy tasks. In its original iteration, each sample required 50 seconds of processing time before the neural network was trained. We minimized the order of the filter to introduce an acceptable level of passband ripple, vectorized the LPC windowing implementation, and replaced the find operation used by in formant detection with logical indexing. These measures reduced the average computational time to only about half a second per sample.

Neural network learning curves

To evaluate the performance of the neural network, we split the database into two distinct sections. The training set (70% of the database) was used to train the neural network. A logarithmic distribution of regularization was tested. When each trained set of internodal weights was applied to the test set (30% of the database), we were able to determine the true accuracy of the neural network. We found that the test set accuracy actually peaked at a low value of regularization and then decreased. This is a characteristic signature of having far too small of a database. Given that the size of the database was fixed, we attempted to compensate by minimizing the number of input features to the neural network. It is important to have the ratio between training examples and inputs be large. If we had instead seen a gap between the training and test set performance even at high levels of regularization, we would have known that our choice of input features was inherently faulty.

Algorithm performance

We established a human performance baseline by playing a randomized list of 100 samples to three individuals. None were able to significantly outperform chance. Clearly humans struggle to classify a precise emotion from such a large list, especially without any context. If the test is altered to be a binary matching test where the subject is asked to evaluate whether a given emotion is intoned in a given sample, human performance markedly improves. This suggests that in normal everyday interaction, we rely on semantic content and situational context to derive an emotional expectation; then, we simply evaluate the speaker's tone to see if it matches that expectation.

The algorithm correctly identifies the tone of the speakers voice with 26 percent accuracy. The algorithm was particularly adept at detecting contempt (41%), anxiety (37%), sadness (33%), and boredom (31%). It struggled to identify cold anger (4%).

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Robust classification of highly-specific emotion in human speech. OpenStax CNX. Dec 14, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11465/1.1
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