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The cuticle of Nematodes is rich in collagen and a carbohydrate-protein polymer called chitin, and forms an external “skeleton” outside the epidermis. The cuticle also lines many of the organs internally, including the pharynx and rectum. The epidermis can be either a single layer of cells or a syncytium, which is a multinucleated cell formed from the fusion of uninucleated cells.

The overall morphology of these worms is cylindrical, as seen in [link] . The head is radially symmetrical. A mouth opening is present at the anterior end with three or six lips as well as teeth in some species in the form of cuticle extensions. Some nematodes may present other external modifications like rings, head shields, or warts. Rings, however, do not reflect true internal body segmentation. The mouth leads to a muscular pharynx and intestine, which leads to a rectum and anal opening at the posterior end. The muscles of nematodes differ from those of most animals: They have a longitudinal layer only, which accounts for the whip-like motion of their movement.

Photo a shows a worm-shaped nematode next to a capsule-shaped nematode egg. The illustration in part b shows a cross-section of a nematode, which has a mouth at one end and an anus at the other. The mouth connects to a pharynx, then to an intestine. A dorsal nerve runs along the top of the animal and joins ring-like head ganglia at the front end. Testes run alongside the intestine toward the back of the animal.
Scanning electron micrograph shows (a) the soybean cyst nematode ( Heterodera glycines ) and a nematode egg. (b) A schematic representation shows the anatomy of a typical nematode. (credit a: modification of work by USDA ARS; scale-bar data from Matt Russell)

Excretory system

In nematodes, specialized excretory systems are not well developed. Nitrogenous wastes may be lost by diffusion through the entire body or into the pseudocoelom (body cavity), where they are removed by specialized cells. Regulation of water and salt content of the body is achieved by renette glands, present under the pharynx in marine nematodes.

Nervous system

Most nematodes possess four longitudinal nerve cords that run along the length of the body in dorsal, ventral, and lateral positions. The ventral nerve cord is better developed than the dorsal or lateral cords. All nerve cords fuse at the anterior end, around the pharynx, to form head ganglia or the “brain” of the worm (which take the form of a ring around the pharynx) as well as at the posterior end to form the tail ganglia. In C . elegans , the nervous system accounts for nearly one-third of the total number of cells in the animal.

Reproduction

Nematodes employ a variety of reproductive strategies that range from monoecious to dioecious to parthenogenic, depending upon the species under consideration. C . elegans is a monoecious species and shows development of ova contained in a uterus as well as sperm contained in the spermatheca. The uterus has an external opening known as the vulva. The female genital pore is near the middle of the body, whereas the male’s is at the tip. Specialized structures at the tail of the male keep him in place while he deposits sperm with copulatory spicules. Fertilization is internal, and embryonic development starts very soon after fertilization. The embryo is released from the vulva during the gastrulation stage. The embryonic development stage lasts for 14 hours; development then continues through four successive larval stages with ecdysis between each stage—L1, L2, L3, and L4—ultimately leading to the development of a young male or female adult worm. Adverse environmental conditions like overcrowding and lack of food can result in the formation of an intermediate larval stage known as the dauer larva.

Questions & Answers

this biology is for which grade?
Janet Reply
A1
Boadi
state any one specialized animal cell and it's function
Pascal Reply
sperm cell: Fertilization
Tshering
Can DNA and RNA be praticalized
Oyewale Reply
you can make models of them and show how they replicate
Oswald
what is dentition
Tisa Reply
Study of teeths and their functions
Stanisla
what are the function
Tisa
it's not teeths. teeth is plural as well as singular noun. the function of the teeth is to cut and grind food for easier swallowing and for increasing the surface area if the fish as the substrate in which digestive enzymes work
Oswald
dentition is not the study of teeth but the arrangement of teeth in the mouth of species or individuals
Oswald
what are the two types of teeth
Tisa
Function of probosis
Adeola Reply
why do we study biology?
SYDNEY Reply
where biology began
Alhaji
What are chromesome
Talkmore Reply
condensed DNA wrapped with histone
Elias
what is chromosome?
Royd Reply
How can a person who has been in the vascular disease repairs his or her DNA
Rabson Reply
i need its explanation sir..pls provid na...🙁
Shaf Reply
Of wat
John
explanation for wat
Christian
Of war na so dat I can provide
John
Is d process which food is converted into substance dat can be utilize by d body
John
the meaning of disgestion
Charity Reply
because they are considered to be proteins ..lipids,fats, and nucleic acids
Geeta Reply
what is osmosis
Festus Reply
Is the movement of solvent molecules from the region of a higher concentration to the region of lower concentration
Muhammad
It is the movement of solvent from the region of lower concentration to the region of higher concentration through a semi-permeable membrane.
Helen
and diffusion
Prudent
it is the movement of water molecules fro region of higher conc. to the region of lower conc.thro a semi-permeable membrane.
Chansa
Diffusion is the movement of solute molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
Quartey
osmosis is the movement of water molecule from the region higher water potential to a region of lower water potential
Pascal
what is the function of Nerve cell?
Pascal
Hello Everyone!! Any good study app recommendations?
HONNEA Reply
For which subject
Sinyinza
Biology:)
HONNEA
Hello everyone!! I want to be sure does exoskeleton consist of endoskeleton? plz help right nw
Sinyinza
Try this one and also biology Olevels
Sinyinza
Thanks!
HONNEA
Hey, I'm completely new to biology. I'm computer science graduate but I want to learn Neuroscience from scratch. So I have decided to study this book as my entry point to the field. is this book good for a complete beginner in the field?
Adeetya Reply
Yes it can help since u ar a beginner
Sinyinza
Thanks for the clarification.
Adeetya

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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