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Natural sciences

Grade 8


Module 24


Fossils are the remains of dead plants, animals, bacteria and other life forms that lived millions of years ago and were then petrified.

Fossils are the petrified remains of organisms, e.g. teeth, bones, bark or shells. They may also be the tracks or waste products of organisms.

1. When an animal or organism dies, the soft parts decay first. The rest is buried below the sand or in mud.

2. Over millions of years, chemical changes and the intense pressure of overlying layers result in the petrification of these remains.

3. Water that seeps through such remains also effects changes. Petrified forms are retained very well.

4. Movement of the earth plates brings fossils to the surface.

Activity: to do research on the forming of fossils

What is a palaeontologist?

What does SA law say about fossils? www.ru.ac.za/pssa/pssalaw.html

Assignment: draw a flow diagram to illustrate the process by which fossils are formed.

Assessment of the flow diagram:

Were you able to draw a meaningful flow diagram of the fossilisation process?

[ LO 2.2]

Adaptations – Fossils

Activity: to interpret information

Study the following sketches of fossils and try to make deductions concerning their feeding and locomotion:

Skull of a primitive amphibian

Brachiopod shells in a 500 – 300 million year-old marine deposit

Skull of a South African dinosaur ( Mossospondylus )

A fly found in the 90 million years old deposits of the Orapa diamond crater (Botswana)

Assessment of deduction:

Could you make correct deductions from the pictures of fossils?

[ LO 2.3]


Learning outcomes 2: Constructing Science Knowledge

The learner will know and be able to interpret and apply scientific, technological and environmental knowledge.

This is evident when the learner

  • is able to categorise information
  • is able to interpret information


Class activity: SKETCHES of FOSSILS

  • Find sources of information on fossils, palaeontologists and excavations.
  • www.ru.ac/za/pssa/pssalaw.hrml - fossils and SA law

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11050/1.1
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