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Natural sciences

Grade 8


Module 24


Fossils are the remains of dead plants, animals, bacteria and other life forms that lived millions of years ago and were then petrified.

Fossils are the petrified remains of organisms, e.g. teeth, bones, bark or shells. They may also be the tracks or waste products of organisms.

1. When an animal or organism dies, the soft parts decay first. The rest is buried below the sand or in mud.

2. Over millions of years, chemical changes and the intense pressure of overlying layers result in the petrification of these remains.

3. Water that seeps through such remains also effects changes. Petrified forms are retained very well.

4. Movement of the earth plates brings fossils to the surface.

Activity: to do research on the forming of fossils

What is a palaeontologist?

What does SA law say about fossils? www.ru.ac.za/pssa/pssalaw.html

Assignment: draw a flow diagram to illustrate the process by which fossils are formed.

Assessment of the flow diagram:

Were you able to draw a meaningful flow diagram of the fossilisation process?

[ LO 2.2]

Adaptations – Fossils

Activity: to interpret information

Study the following sketches of fossils and try to make deductions concerning their feeding and locomotion:

Skull of a primitive amphibian

Brachiopod shells in a 500 – 300 million year-old marine deposit

Skull of a South African dinosaur ( Mossospondylus )

A fly found in the 90 million years old deposits of the Orapa diamond crater (Botswana)

Assessment of deduction:

Could you make correct deductions from the pictures of fossils?

[ LO 2.3]


Learning outcomes 2: Constructing Science Knowledge

The learner will know and be able to interpret and apply scientific, technological and environmental knowledge.

This is evident when the learner

  • is able to categorise information
  • is able to interpret information


Class activity: SKETCHES of FOSSILS

  • Find sources of information on fossils, palaeontologists and excavations.
  • www.ru.ac/za/pssa/pssalaw.hrml - fossils and SA law

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11050/1.1
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