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An interesting feature of Fullerenes is that their hollow structure allows them to hold other atoms inside them.The applications of this are abound, and are being studied to great extent.

Important to note about any new material is its health concerns. Although believed to be relatively inert,experiments by Eva Oberdörster at Southern Methodist University, presented some possible dangers of fullerenes. She introducedbuckyballs into water at concentrations of 0.5 parts per million, and found that largemouth bass suffered a 17-fold increase incellular damage in the brain tissue after 48 hours. The damage was of the type lipid peroxidation, which is known to impair thefunctioning of cell membranes. Their livers were also inflamed and genes responsible for producing repair enzymes were activated. Asof 10/20/05, the SMU work had not been peer reviewed.

What have buckyballs contributed to science?

After the astrophysicists D.R. Huffmann and W. Kratschmer managed to produce larger quantities of fullerenes in1990, scientists further investigated the structure and characteristics of buckyballs. Research on buckyballs has led tothe synthesis of over 1000 new compounds with exciting properties, and over 100 patents related to buckyballs have been filed in theUS. In addition, an important new material, nanotubes, has exploded onto the scientific scene in recent years. The discovery andmanufacture of nanotubes resulted directly from research on buckyballs. Finally, although buckyballs have not yet been used inany practical applications, partly due to the high cost of material, researchers are using buckyballs to learn more about thehistory of our world, and companies are devising some interesting uses for buckyballs even today.

Nanotubes

The discovery of nanotubes in 1991 by S. Iijima has been by far the buckyball’s most significant contribution to currentresearch. Nanotubes, both single- and multi-walled, can be thought of as sheets of graphite rolled into cylinders and sometimes cappedwith half-fullerenes. Nanotubes, like fullerenes, possess some very unique properties, such as high electrical and thermalconductivity, high mechanical strength, and high surface area. In fact, carbon nanotubes provide a clear example of the specialproperties inherent at the quantum level because they can act as either semi-conductors or metals, unlike macroscopic quantities ofcarbon molecules. These properties make nanotubes extremely interesting to researchers and companies, who are alreadydeveloping many potentially revolutionary uses for them.

What are buckyballs teaching us about our world?

A paper published on March 28, 2000 in the Proceedings of the National Academy ofSciences (PNAS) by Becker, Poreda, and Bunch uses buckyballs to provide new evidence for early periods in earth’s geological andbiological history. By exploiting the unique properties of buckyballs, these three scientists were able to study geology in anew way. First of all, the unique ability to extract fullerenes (unlike graphite and diamond) from organic solvents allowed them toisolate carbon material in the meteorites, then the unique cage-like structure of fullerenes allowed them to investigate thenoble gases enclosed within the ancient fullerenes. In their study, the researches found helium of extraterrestrial origin trappedinside buckyballs extracted from two meteorites and sedimentary clay layers from 2 billion and 65 million years ago respectively.The helium inside these buckyballs bears unusual ratios of 3He/4He coupled with non-atmospheric ratios of 40Ar/36Ar, which accordingto their research indicates extraterrestrial origin. In addition, they have shown that these fullerenes could not have been formedupon impact of the meteorite or during subsequent forest fires.iBecker, Poreda, and Bunch. 2982.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti

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Source:  OpenStax, Nanomaterials and nanotechnology. OpenStax CNX. May 07, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10700/1.13
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