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Although the masseter and temporalis are responsible for elevating and closing the jaw to break food into digestible pieces, the medial pterygoid    and lateral pterygoid    muscles provide assistance in chewing and moving food within the mouth.

Muscles that move the tongue

Although the tongue is obviously important for tasting food, it is also necessary for mastication, deglutition    (swallowing), and speech ( [link] and [link] ). Because it is so moveable, the tongue facilitates complex speech patterns and sounds.

Muscles that move the tongue

Muscles for tongue movement, swallowing, and speech

This table describes the muscles used in tongue movement, swallowing, and speech. The genioglossus moves the tongue down and sticks the tongue out of the mouth. It originates in the mandible. The styloglossus moves the tongue up and retracts the tongue back into the mouth. It originates in the temporal bone. The hyoglossus flattens the tongue. It originates in the hyoid bone. The palatoglossus bulges the tongue. It originates in the soft palate. The digastric raises the hyoid bone in a way that also raises the larynx, allowing the epiglottis to cover the glottis during deglutition; it also assists in opening the mouth by depressing the mandible. It originates in the mandible and temporal bone. The stylohyoid raises and retracts the hyoid bone in a way that elongates the oral cavity during deglutition. It originates in the temporal bone. The mylohyoid raises the hyoid bone in a way that presses the tongue against the roof of the mouth, pushing food back into the pharynx during deglutition. It originates in the mandible. The geniohyoid raises and moves the hyoid bone forward, widening the pharynx during deglutition. It originates in the mandible. The ornohyoid retracts the hyoid bone and moves it down during later phases of deglutition. It originates in the scapula. The sternohyoid depresses the hyoid bone during swallowing and speaking. It originates in the clavicle. The thyrohyoid shrinks the distance between thyroid cartilage and the hyoid bone, allowing production of high-pitch vocalizations. It originates in the hyroid cartilage. The sternothyroid depresses the larynx, thyroid cartilage, and hyoid bone to create different vocal tones. It originates in the sternum. The sternocleidomastoid and semispinalis capitis rotate and tilt the head to the side and forward. They originate in the sternum and clavicle. The splenius capitis and longissimus capitis rotate and tilt the head to the side and backwards.

Tongue muscles can be extrinsic or intrinsic. Extrinsic tongue muscles insert into the tongue from outside origins, and the intrinsic tongue muscles insert into the tongue from origins within it. The extrinsic muscles move the whole tongue in different directions, whereas the intrinsic muscles allow the tongue to change its shape (such as, curling the tongue in a loop or flattening it).

The extrinsic muscles all include the word root glossus (glossus = “tongue”), and the muscle names are derived from where the muscle originates. The genioglossus    (genio = “chin”) originates on the mandible and allows the tongue to move downward and forward. The styloglossus    originates on the styloid bone, and allows upward and backward motion. The palatoglossus    originates on the soft palate to elevate the back of the tongue, and the hyoglossus    originates on the hyoid bone to move the tongue downward and flatten it.

Everyday connections

Anesthesia and the tongue muscles

Before surgery, a patient must be made ready for general anesthesia. The normal homeostatic controls of the body are put “on hold” so that the patient can be prepped for surgery. Control of respiration must be switched from the patient’s homeostatic control to the control of the anesthesiologist. The drugs used for anesthesia relax a majority of the body’s muscles.

Among the muscles affected during general anesthesia are those that are necessary for breathing and moving the tongue. Under anesthesia, the tongue can relax and partially or fully block the airway, and the muscles of respiration may not move the diaphragm or chest wall. To avoid possible complications, the safest procedure to use on a patient is called endotracheal intubation. Placing a tube into the trachea allows the doctors to maintain a patient’s (open) airway to the lungs and seal the airway off from the oropharynx. Post-surgery, the anesthesiologist gradually changes the mixture of the gases that keep the patient unconscious, and when the muscles of respiration begin to function, the tube is removed. It still takes about 30 minutes for a patient to wake up, and for breathing muscles to regain control of respiration. After surgery, most people have a sore or scratchy throat for a few days.

Muscles of the anterior neck

The muscles of the anterior neck assist in deglutition (swallowing) and speech by controlling the positions of the larynx (voice box), and the hyoid bone, a horseshoe-shaped bone that functions as a solid foundation on which the tongue can move. The muscles of the neck are categorized according to their position relative to the hyoid bone ( [link] ). Suprahyoid muscles are superior to it, and the infrahyoid muscles    are located inferiorly.

Questions & Answers

What is metatarsal
Ndotenyin Reply
bone of the foot is known as metatarsal
Patrick
yes 👆 right
Sneha
metatarsal (foot bone).....👍
Rishi
the term "mental" pertain to which of the following a. chin b.navel c. ear d. nose e. skull
cris Reply
a
Lina
chin
Sneha
hi
Mohamed
skull
Monica
skull
Peter
chin
Kelly
skull
Juma
skull
Gul
skull
Laraib
skull
anwaar
skull
Nirmala
skull
Tessmol
chin
Derrick
mental chin nerve
Katarzyna
e. skull
Jennifer
skull
prince
e. skull
Natasha
It's not skull but chin
mwango
what are the three many components of the lymphatic system?
Milica Reply
those are...... organ, tissue and blood capillary or vessals
Juma
anatomical terms and use them appropriatly in the language of anatomy of anterior body landmarks
Teody Reply
what is human anatomy?
rascal Reply
lts stady structured human body's
Sa
what is the study of how the body functions?
Bright
what is abdomipelvic cavity?
david Reply
Includes all organs within the abdomen(stomach,intestines) and those from the pelvic region hence the name... abdomipelvic
Maureen
where can we find the short bones
Chidi Reply
Carpal bones are examples of short bones
Dara
what is blood supply
Chidi
on upper limb and lower limb
Juma
carpal bones
Priya
during pregnancy which would more increase size the mothers abdominal or pelvic cavity?
Nurmalyn Reply
pelvic cavity I think
Priya
What is anatomical position
Nwoye
pelvic
Maureen
@ Nwoye... when standing erect, feet parallel, arms hanging at the sides with palms facing forward
Maureen
define the main directional terms of the body
cris Reply
during physical exercise respiratory rate increace two student are discussing the mechanisms involved. student A claim they are positive feedback and student B claim negative feedback do you agree with student A or B and why
cris
what is the physiology of circulation
Chidi
please I mean the physiology of criculation
Chidi
blood flow refers to the movement of blood through the vessels from arteries to the capillaries and then to the veins
Laraib
during pregnancy, which would more size the mother's abdominal or pelvic cavity? explain
cris Reply
list and define the three plane of devision of the body
cris
complete the following statements using correct directional terms for human being. 1. the navel is________to the nose 2. the heart is______to the breastbone(sternum) 3 the ankle is______to the knee 4 the ear is______to the eyes.
cris
1. superior 2. posterior 3. superior 4. lateral
Mnm
anterior fuerior
Chidi
name the system of the body and its function
cris Reply
11 system are human body 1.integumentary system 2. skeletal system 3. muscular system 4. nervous system 5. endocrine system 6. cardiovascular system 7. lymphatic system 8. respiratory system 9. digestive system 10. urinary system 11. reproductive system male and female.
Vineeta
during pregnancy, which would more size the mother's abdominal or pelvic cavity? explain
cris
how the body maintain hormeostasis in terms of bloodglucose level
cris Reply
It releases hormones from the pancreas insulin and glucagon
TONY
why human blood pressure high
amin Reply
fear, anxiety, sickness
Inemesit
why in mothers womb the foetus head is in anus direction?
Kick
As it seems the position downside n if we did such position thn soon we got vomiting then how foetus stay in downward position long time?
Kick
What is red blood cell
HANNAH Reply
A type of blood cell that is made in the bone marrow and found in the blood. Red blood cells contain a protein called hemoglobin, which carries oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body. Checking the number of red blood cells in the blood is usually part of a complete blood cell (CBC) test. It
Noor
red blood cell are the most numerous blood cells.they comprise about 99% of all blood cells red blood cells are non nucleated it has red colour due to present to hemoglobin.
Vineeta
Thanks for the answers
HANNAH
how will you promote quality of life in ptb patient using the 14 basic needs and 21 nursing problems?
rOx Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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