<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
Lay out elements are responsible for two dimensional structure, arrangement and final appearnce by the rendering system.

Layout elements control two dimensional layout of characters, symbols and composed expressions. There are three groups of elements that determine the two dimensional lay out of the mathematical content and affects its maangement.

    Layout element groups

  • Basic layout elements
  • Scripting elements
  • Table elements

Basic layout elements comprises of 10 elements. The names and their basic role in rendering layout are listed here :

    Basic layout elements

  • “mrow” : makes horizontal groups of sub-expressions for variety of purposes
  • “mfrac : renders elements in P/Q form
  • “msqrt” : renders a square root
  • “mroot” : renders a radical with an index
  • “mstyle : set environment attributes for the enclosed elements
  • “merror : enclose a syntax error message from a preprocessor
  • “mpadded” : manages space around content
  • “mphantom” : makes content invisible, while maintaining structure
  • “mfenced” : Segregates terms with separators and surround its content with a pair of fences
  • “menclose” : enclose content with a stretching symbol

”mrow” layout element

The “mrow” element is a horizontal sub-grouping facility. Grouping of sub expression is an important requirement for variety of reasons. Primarily, this element determines the relationship between an “operator” and “operand”. When there is single character “operator” and “operand” relationship, then grouping is not an issue. However, when there more than one “operand” in an expression, then grouping is required.

Grouping of elements is also important where elements require certain numbers of argument. In such situation, it is possible that there are more child elements than the arguments required. Consider the example here, where child elements are grouped to meet the requirement of “mfrac” syntax for two arguments.

"mfrac" layout element

<m:math display="block"> <m:mfrac> <m:mrow> <m:mi>x</m:mi> <m:mo>+</m:mo> <m:mn>y</m:mn> </m:mrow> <m:mn>z</m:mn> </m:mfrac> </m:math>

Save the file after editing as “test.xml”. The display looks like :

x + y z

In the example above, “mrow” element is used to group the sub-expression “x + y” to be treated as numerator in “mfrac” implementation.

We have also seen earlier that “mrow” plays important role in determining the form of an operator. The form of an operator as “prefix” or “infix” or “postfix” is determined by the position of an operator in the group of sub expression defined by “mrow” element.

Grouping of elements, terms and sub-expressions (in yet another sub-expression) is a common requirement for meaningful mathematical expression. As such, MathML platform implements an inferred mechanism, whereby certain elements infer that the child elements are grouped with “mrow” in an implicit manner. This means that we may save on writing a pair of “mrow” tags in such situation.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, A primer in mathml. OpenStax CNX. Apr 19, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10345/1.16
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'A primer in mathml' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask