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Supplemental material

I recommend that you also study the other lessons in my extensive collection of online programming tutorials. You will find a consolidated index at www.DickBaldwin.com .


This module will describe and discuss some scenarios which, never having been seen, may be hard for a blind student to imagine. Some of those scenarios can be difficult tobelieve even when you can see them.

Newton's cradle

The behavior of Newton's cradle is somewhat difficult to believe even when you see it in operation. Newton's cradle is a gadget that is often found in novelty shops. Ittypically consists of an open wood or metal frame with about five steel balls suspended by strings on parallel beams that run from one end to the other alongthe top.

Several steel balls in a row

Each ball is suspended by two strings so that the ball forms the lower vertex of a triangle and the two equal-length strings form the sides of the triangle.Each string is attached at the upper end to a beam. The purpose of suspending each ball by two strings instead of suspending them on a single string is to cause all of the ballsto swing back and forth along the same straight line.

A collision

When the system is in equilibrium, the balls are lined up in a row and each ball barely touches the one next to it. If you pull one of the balls at the endback and then release it, allowing it to swing down, it will strike its neighbor on the downswing.

Only the ball on the other end appears to move

Surprisingly, the neighboring ball doesn't appear to move when struck, nor does its neighbor, nor does that neighbor's neighbor. The only ball that appears to move isthe ball at the far end of the line. That ball will be sent off in an upswing.

The process is reversed

When that ball reaches the top of its upswing, it will reverse direction, swing back down, and collide with its neighbor. This causes the ball that wasused to start the process to be sent off in an upswing.

The process continues

Left alone, this process will continue until all of the energy in the systemhas been dissipated, which can be many minutes or even hours later.

Newton's cradle illustrates the conservation of momentum. You will find an interestingarticle that explains some of the technical details at (External Link)


You learned in an earlier module that momentum is the product of the mass of an object and the velocity of the object. Because velocity is a vector quantity,momentum is also a vector quantity. The direction of the momentum vector is the same as the direction of the underlying velocity vector.

A common symbol for momentum is p

A common symbol for momentum is p . Momentum is a derived item in the SI system of units. In the SI system, momentum is defined as kg*m/s.

In equation form , therefore:

  • momentum = mass * velocity, or
  • p = m * v in units of kg*m/s

Facts worth remembering -- Momentum

  • momentum = mass * velocity, or
  • p = m * v

The units of momentum are kg*m/s

Mass in action

Momentum can also be thought of as "mass in motion." Since all objects have mass, if an object is moving, its mass is in motion. Therefore, the object has momentum.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Accessible physics concepts for blind students. OpenStax CNX. Oct 02, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11294/1.36
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