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Social sciences


Grade 8

Land and power

Module 4

The industrial revolution

Source a

In 1733, Mr. John Kay of Britain improved the loom used for weaving to such an extent that the demand for spinning thread increased drastically. From the business world it is clear that the greater the demand for a specific product (e.g. spinning thread), the better the price that can be obtained by the manufacturer (e.g. the spinner) for his product.

James Hargreaves was a woodworker and spinner from Lancashire in Britain. One day, his daughter, Jenny, knocked over the spinning wheel in the overcrowded house in which he, his wife and their seven children operated their cottage industry.

James realised that more spindles could be mounted on the axle and that more threads could therefore be spun at the same time. Hargreaves names his new invention the Spinning Jenny.

One Spinning Jenny, which had eight spindles, could do the work of eight people at the same time. Spinners who feared job

lessness broke into Hargreaves’s house and destroyed the Spin

ning Jenny. Hargreaves moved to Nottingham and opened a factory with larger and better spinning machines. His success with the Spinning Jenny motivated other inventors to also begin experimentation. In this way, a number of new and improved machines were developed.

The next step was the development of machines that could be operated with water power and steam power.

Written exercise:

  • Complete the following sentences on Source A.

The development of the Spinning Jenny was caused by an accident, namely that


The consequence of the accident was that Hargreaves got the bright idea to


The cause / reason for the development of the improved spinning wheel was________________________________________________________/2/

The consequence / result of the improved spinning wheel was__________________/2/


[LO 2.2]

Source b

The use of machines increased production, necessitating good roads for fast transport from the farm (e.g. fresh vegetables or wheat for bread) or factory (e.g. clothes) to the market.

John Loudon McAdam is still respected as a master road builder today. It is thanks to him that a network of excellent roads was built in Scotland and Britain.

Activity: chronology

All the following facts on McAdam are correct, but they are not in the correct sequence. Read through the points and rearrange the facts so that they follow on one another logically.

1. He returned to Scotland at the age of 27.

2. When John was 14, his father died and he went to live with his uncle in New York.

3. McAdam was born in Scotland in 1756.

4. When John was a child, he enjoyed making roads for his toy carriages.

5. Even after his death, his techniques for building roads remained available in the three books that he wrote on the topic.

6. In New York, McAdam eventually became a wealthy merchant.

7. Back in Scotland, McAdam began to experiment with road building on his own estate in Ayrshire.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11044/1.1
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