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Grade 5

Health and well-being

Module 33

Diseases: malaria, tuberculosis, cholera

We shall now take a look at a few serious diseases that are found all over the world. These terrible diseases are often the cause of many deaths.


  • Origin and nature:Malaria is a disease that is found in the tropical and subtropical climactic zones (mostly in the northern parts of South Africa). It is caused by a tiny parasite that enters the bloodstream when one is bitten by a certain female mosquito. The parasite spends part of its life cycle in the human body. It multiplies rapidly. It attacks the red blood corpuscles and this makes one very weak indeed. It can also cause death. Many patients suffer from recurrent malaria attacks for years after the first attack.
  • Typical symptoms:
  • severe headaches;
  • bouts of shivering;
  • reddish-brown urine;
  • a high fever and heavy sweating.
  • Treatment:

The patient is taken to hospital immediately, and the area is very carefully inspected for more cases of the disease. If there are many other cases in the same area, one has to look for the mosquitoes’ breeding-place and once it has been found, it must be sprayed with insecticide. The patients’ homes are also fumigated.

  • Prevention:

Activity 1:

To find out more about preventative measures in the prevention of malaria

[lo 1.6]

Tuberculosis (TB)

  • Origin and nature: Tuberculosis (TB) is a very serious, contagious disease that occurs particularly in mines and in areas where people live very close together and where the standard of hygiene is low. It can also be connected to poverty, and it is much more prevalent where people who are vulnerable to this disease do not have enough money to buy sufficient nourishing food.

Are people in your immediate environment exposed to such hazards? Have a group discussion on this issue.

The human body weakens and becomes highly susceptible to diseases such as TB. Often many people from the same area have the same disease, and then we say there is an epidemic of that particular disease. TB germs can spread very swiftly. For example, if someone who is incubating the disease coughs near other people, he or she could infect them quite easily.

  • Typical symptoms:A TB patient:
  • coughs a lot;
  • often complains of a tight chest;
  • has a very poor appetite and eats very little;
  • regularly has a high temperature and perspires a lot at night;
  • loses a lot of weight;
  • has swollen glands.
  • Treatment:

TB patients take tablets as medication. The disease can be cured on condition that the patient takes the tablets regularly as prescribed and continues to do so even when the symptoms have already disappeared.

  • Prevention:

A healthy, nourishing daily diet and good sanitary habits are necessary. Babies should be vaccinated against TB so that their bodies can develop resistance to the disease.


  • Origin and nature:This extremely serious disease usually occurs in hot, humid conditions, such as those that are found in the subtropical areas along the east coast of our country. It occurs in areas where there is no fresh running water, tap water or proper sewerage systems (in densely-populated areas and where there are poor sanitary conditions). In such an area human sewage often lands up in streams and dams, and causes contamination of the water.

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
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Source:  OpenStax, Social sciences: geography grade 5. OpenStax CNX. Sep 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10986/1.2
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