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This module explains how international copyright law works, how it affects developing countries, and how developing countries can affect it.

Module 2: the international framework

 learning objective

This module explains how international copyright law works, how it affects developing countries, and how developing countries can affect it.

Case study

Angela is troubled by the restrictions that copyright law places upon her ability to assemble and distribute course materials. She is considering writing a short article, arguing that her nation's copyright law should be reformed to give teachers and students more latitude. However, she has heard that international agreements may restrict the freedom that each country enjoys to define its own copyright laws. Before drafting her article, she asks Nadia's help in determining which, if any, international agreements are applicable in their own country .

Lesson

The rationale for the international system

As we saw in  Module 1: Copyright and the Public Domain , each country in the world has its own set of copyright laws. However, the flexibility that most countries enjoy in adjusting and enforcing their own laws is limited by a set of international treaties.

Why do we need any international management of this field? There are two traditional answers to this question.

First, without some international standardization, nations might enact legislation that protects their own citizens while leaving foreigners vulnerable. Such discrimination was common prior to international regulation. As copyright owners become increasingly interested in global protection for their creation, mutual recognition on fair terms of rights across borders becomes ever more important.

Second, some copyright holders believe that developing nations would not adopt adequate copyright protections unless forced to do so by treaty. Representatives of developing nations strongly dispute this argument.

International instruments

The simplest way to achieve these goals would be a single treaty signed by all countries. Unfortunately, the current situation is more complex. Instead of one treaty, we now have six major  multilateral  agreements, each with a different set of member countries.

Each of the six agreements was negotiated within - and is now administered by - an international organization. Four of the six are managed by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO); one by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); and one by the World Trade Organization (WTO).

The six agreements have been created and implemented in similar, though not identical, ways. Typically, the process begins when representatives of countries think that there should be international standards governing a set of issues. They enter into  negotiations , which can last several years. During the negotiations, draft provisions are presented to the delegations of each country, which then discuss them and may propose amendments to their content in order to reach a consensus. This "consensus" may reflect genuine agreement among all of the participating countries that the proposed treaty is desirable, or it may result from pressure exerted by more powerful countries upon less powerful countries. Once consensus has been reached, the countries conclude the treaty by  signing  it. Thereafter, the governments of the participating countries  ratify  the treaty, whereupon it  enters into force . Countries that did not sign the treaty when it was initially concluded may join the treaty later by  accession .

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Copyright for librarians. OpenStax CNX. May 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10698/1.2
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