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Sosiale wetenskappe


Graad 8


Module 14

Skaal en afstandsberekening

Skaal en afstandsberekening

1.1 Skaal

Skaal is die mate waarin ’n kaart kleiner is as die werklike aardoppervlakte. Julle het al vroeër geleer dat daar verskillende soorte skale is:

a) Die woordskaal druk die skaal in woorde uit, byvoorbeeld “Een sentimeter op die kaart verteenwoordig ’n halwe kilometer”.

b) Die breukskaal word as ’n verhouding of ’n breuk geskryf, byvoorbeeld 1:50 000 of 1 50 000 size 12{ { { size 8{1} } over { size 8{"50"`"000"} } } } {} .Dit beteken een eenheid (bv. cm) op die kaart verteenwoordig 50 000 van dieselfde eenhede (cm) op die aardoppervlakte.

c) Die lynskaal is ’n lyn wat in sentimeter afgemerk is, wat die ooreenkomstige afstand op die grond in kilometer aandui.

Afstandaangedui as 3,5 km

1.2 Die meet van afstand op ’n kaart

Daar gaan deurgaans van die topografiese kaartreeks gebruik gemaak word waar die skaal 1:50 000 is.

Gaan soos volg te werk om werklike afstand te bepaal:

  • Meet die afstand op die kaart akkuraat met ’n liniaal in sentimeter.
  • Herlei die afstand na km of m afhangend van wat gevra word.


  • Die kaartafstand tussen A en B is 10 cm.
  • Wat is die werklike afstand in km?
  • Wat is die werklike afstand in m?
10 cm × 50 000500 000 cm ÷ 100 000= 5 km 10 cm × 50 000500 000 cm ÷ 100= 5 000 m

Hoekom word daar met 100 000 en 100 gedeel?

  • Die metrieke eenheidsmate is soos volg:
  • Daar is dus 100 000 cm in ’n km 100 cm in ’n meter

Jy kan dus ’n korter metode gebruik as jy onthou dat jou skaal van 1:50 000 dieselfde is as:

1 cm = 50 000 cm1 cm = 500 m (÷ 100)1 cm = 0,5 km (÷ 100 000)

Bereken dan die afstand soos volg:

10 cm × 0,5 10 cm × 500= 5 km = 500 m

  • As ’n kronkelende pad byvoorbeeld gemeet moet word, moet die roete eers met ’n stukkie tou gemeet word. Meet die tou se lengte op die liniaal af en volg dan dieselfde metode as hierbo of meet dit af op die lynskaal.


[LU 1.3]

1. Bereken die werklike afstand in meter as die afstand op ’n 1:50 000 topografiese kaart die volgende is:

a) 2,3 cm

b) 6,8 cm

c) 5,5 cm

2. Bereken die werklike afstand in kilometer as die afstand op ’n 1:50 000 topografiese kaart die volgende is:

a) 90,4 cm

b) 56,3 cm

c) 103,6 cm


LU 1
Aardrykskundige OndersoekDie leerder is in staat om ondersoekvaardighede te gebruik om aardrykskundige en omgewingsbegrippe en -prosesse te ondersoek.
Dit is duidelik wanneer die leerder:
1.1 ‘n verskeidenheid geografiese en omgewingsbronne identifiseer en selekteer wat relevant tot die navorsing is;1.2 inligting vanaf kaarte en atlasse, asook grafiese en statistiese bronne, interpreteer;1.3 afstandberekening doen op kaarte en dit vergelyk met werklike afstand;1.4 fisiese en mensgemaakte eienskappe op lugfoto’s en kaarte identifiseer.



1(a) 1150 m

1( b) 3400 m

1(c) 2750 m

2(a) 45,2 km

2(b) 28,25 km

2(c) 51,8 km

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Aardrykskunde graad 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 11, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11035/1.1
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