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Social sciences

Grade 6

Trade and development

Module 11

Reasons for wealth/poverty

A. Reasons for Wealth / Poverty

1. The Influence of the Spice Trade

  • When the spices of the Far East were discovered, the Arabs were the first merchants to transport and sell these sought-after products. They traded with merchants from the wealthy Roman Empire at first, and later sold their precious goods to all who could afford them. It was regarded as a symbol of wealth to have spices on one’s table. Venice, a very prosperous Italian city with a powerful naval base, saw a gap in the market and through their participation in the Crusades forced all spice merchants to move through the Venetian ports. Later Venice controlled every aspect of the spice trade, fixed the prices and became very rich. Spices became so expensive that it was almost impossible to buy them, with the result that the other European countries decided to make an effort to find another sea route to the East, so that they could buy their own spices directly from the original merchants.
  • The Portuguese, with their excellent naval skills, took the lead and as early as 1497 they sailed around the southernmost tip of Africa on their way to the East. Wherever they found spices they simply seized them, and instantly killed any of the local inhabitants who offered any resistance.

2. Colonisation

  • Other European countries also set out on voyages of discovery with the main aim of discovering and occupying new territory. Countries such as Britain, the Netherlands and Belgium simply claimed territory for themselves without taking the indigenous population into account. The occupiers then proclaimed these occupied territories as their own “colonies”.
  • In this way the Dutch established themselves here in South Africa with the main objective of providing fresh fruit and vegetables for the passing ships. The greatest part of Africa, as well as the Americas, India, New Zealand and Australia were gradually taken over and colonised in this way.

The settlers from Europe simply appropriated (took for their own use) all the raw materials that were to be found in the colonies without compensating the indigenous people. In this way gold, diamonds, silver, timber and spices were taken to European countries from the colonies. Mozambique, a former Portuguese colony, is a very good example of what happened in that era. For 500 years, from 1505 to 1975 when Mozambique was a Portuguese colony, most of its resources were exploited by other countries.

  • When the colonies became independent during the middle of the twentieth century, the new, independent states were not properly developed at all. In general, the people were not really highly literate and skills were not properly developed. The transport infrastructure was poor or non-existent. The colonists left behind them depilated mines, instead of developed industries. No attention had been given to the training of local managers for companies, banks, schools, mines or even administration. The companies that had been founded in the colonies had enriched the European countries, but had not brought any financial gains for the indigenous people. The colonists (foreigners who had occupied the country) had seen to it that there were good schools for their own children, but they had given no attention to the education and training of the local populace.
  • Today most of the former colonies are still extremely badly off. Their economies are very poorly developed. They have been forced to build up their impoverished countries, which had been robbed of their raw materials, without the skills and the money of the colonists.

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 07, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11000/1.1
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