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Tegnologie

Graad 7

Stelsels en beheer: elektrisiteit

Module 10

Wat is elektrisiteit?

Elektrisiteit

Agtergrond

Elektrisiteit is ‘n vorm van energie. ‘n Voorwerp wat die vermoë het om elektrisiteit te gelei, besit elektriese energie. Elektrisiteit word in Volt gemeet.

Elektriese energie kan maklik in ‘n ander vorm van energie omgesit word.

Daar is hoofsaaklik twee tipes elektrisiteit, naamlik

  • hoofstroomelektrisiteit
  • battery-elektrisiteit

Battery-elektrisiteit

Die elektriese energie word in ‘n battery gestoor. Daar word die energie chemiese energie genoem. Wanneer elektriese energie vloei, beweeg elektrone in ‘n elektriese stroombaan.

Die basiese elemente vir ‘n elektriese stroombaan is:

  • ‘n energiebron , bv. ‘n battery (‘n sel is 1,5V groot);

Skets

Simbool

  • ‘n geleier , nl. drade van ‘n metaal wat die stroom gelei;

Skets

Simbool

  • ‘n skakelaar wat ‘n oop of geslote stroombaan kan veroorsaak;

Skets

Simbool

  • ‘n lading in die vorm van ‘n lig-, klank-, beweging- of warmtebron;

‘n Lig

Simbool

‘n Gonser

Simbool

‘n Elektriese motor

Simbool

Twee of meer van dieselfde komponente van ‘n stroombaan kan op twee verskillende maniere in ‘n stroombaan gemonteer word, nl.

  • in serie , bv. ‘n positiewe pool van ‘n sel word met ‘n negatiewe pool van ‘n ander sel verbind;
  • in paralle l, bv. al die positiewe pole van twee of meer selle van ‘n battery word met mekaar verbind en al die negatiewe pole van twee of meer selle van ‘n battery word met mekaar verbind.

Voordeel van selle in serie – ‘n sterker stroom word gelewer.

Voordeel van selle in parallel – dieselfde stroom kan langer gelewer word.

Wenk aan onderwyser:

Hierdie werkkaarte kan in groepe gedoen word. Elke groep kan ‘n ander stroombaan bou en dit dan aan die klas demonstreer, waarna elke leerder individueel die werkkaarte kan voltooi. Elke groep kan eers ‘n toetsstroombaan met ‘n I,5 V-gloeilamp in ‘n gloeilamphouer, ‘n skakelaar, draad en ‘n 1,5 V-sel in ‘n selhouer op ‘n sagtebordbasis bou. Monteer eers die gloeilamphouer, die batteryhouer en die skakelaar. Verbind die komponente met die draad en plaas die battery en gloeilamp in die stroombaan.

Benodigdhede (materiaal en gereedskap) :

  • 1,5 V-selle
  • selhouers
  • 1,5 V-gloeilampies
  • gloeilamphouers
  • 7 skakelaars
  • 7 basisse van sagtebord, 150 mm by 150 mm
  • draad om komponente te verbind
  • skroefies om komponente op sagtebord te monteer
  • verbindings
  • skroewedraaiers (platbek- en ster-)
  • gonsers met ‘n lae volt
  • resistors en diodes

Opdrag 1:

Om ‘n ondersoek uit te voer d.m.v. ‘n eenvoudige:

Praktiese toets [lu 1.3]

Om toepaslike data te verkry [lu 1.4.4]

Om die stelsel te evalueer [lu 1.12]

Om kennis en begrip van elektriese stroombane te toon [lu 2.2]

WERKKAART 1:

  • Verbind een 1,5 V-gloeilamp in ‘n gloeilamphouer met ‘n sel in ‘n selhouer. Gebruik verbindingsdraad en monteer ook ‘n skakelaar.
  • Maak ‘n eenvoudige skets van die stroombaan.

1.3 Teken ‘n stroomdiagram van die stroombaan en gebruik die regte simbole.

1.4 Onderstreep:

Die gloeilamp brand (baie helder/ helder/ dof/ glad nie).

WERKKAART 2:

2.1 Verbind een 1,5 V-sel in ‘n selhouer met twee 1,5 V-gloeilampe in gloeilamphouers. Monteer die gloeilampe in parallel. Voeg ook ‘n skakelaar in die stroombaan en verbind die komponente met geleidingsdrade.

Questions & Answers

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Eke Reply
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Almas
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Missy Reply
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Joseph
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Source:  OpenStax, Tegnologie graad 7. OpenStax CNX. Sep 10, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11031/1.1
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