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History

Grade 4

How transport has served mankind

Module 10

Road transport and its early development

This learning unit tells the incredible history of the development of road transport.

Activity 1

To understand chronological time [lo 3.3]

A)work with a partner to see whether you are able to arrange the illustrations of vehicles used through the ages in their correct chronological sequence.

1

2

3

4

5

B)which similarities and differences do you notice when you compare the remarkable formula one racing car and the first car that had gears?

First motorcar with gears

Formula One racing car

We'll be doing more exercises that involve time later in the module.

Activity 2

To use your sources [lo 1.2]

The San, Khoina and Bantu-speaking peoples lived in our country many years ago.

The San walked to find water for drinking, plants for eating and animals to hunt. They therefore usually carried their possessions with them.

The Khoina and the Bantu-speaking peoples kept cattle. Sometimes they used the animals for transportation. They also used the cattle for trading.

Investigate these groups and write notes for a class discussion on how they contributed to making transport easier.

c)1. Name the different kinds of transportation shown in (a), (b) and (c). Decide on a caption for each picture.

………………………………………………………………………………….

………………………………………………………………………………….

………………………………………………………………………………….

2. What is carried or transported by the people in each of the pictures?

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

3. How do you think each of these groups would cross a river?

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

4. Who is able to transport:

  • more goods during a single day?……………………………………….
  • fewer goods during a single day?………………………………………

5. What was used to make the means of transport that is illustrated in (c)?

.………………………………………………………………………………….

6. Which of these means of transport are still in use?……………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………..

Activity 3

To recreate the past [lo 3.3]

People from the Netherlands who came to our country later brought very different means of transport with them. Horses, carts, wagons and slaves were common in the villages of the time. Cattle farmers in particular also used ox wagons.

D)examine this sketch drawn by granny as a group and answer the questions that follow:

The town square in Dogsville towards 1800.

  1. What led to the invention of the wheel and what were the results of this invention?
  2. How many means of transportation can you identify in this picture?
  3. Which of these kinds of transport are in use in your town?
  4. So why are some of the people in the picture walking?
  5. Why is the slave carrying goods from a pole balanced across his shoulders?
  6. What do you notice concerning the window of the sedan chair? What is the reason behind this design?
  7. How have we adapted the handcart and wheelbarrow for contemporary use?
  8. Why do the wagons have such large wheels?
  9. What is the most prominent difference between the two kinds of ox wagon?
  10. Can you see how Granny has confused the present and the past?
  11. Which means of transport would you prefer to use?

Assessment

LEARNING OUTCOME 1: HISTORICAL ENQUIRY The learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate the past and present.

Assessment standard

We know this when the learner:

1.2 answers questions: uses information from sources to answer questions.

Learning outcome 3: interpreting history

The learner will be able to interpret aspects of history.

Assessment standard

We know this when the learner:

  • reconstructs the past: able to write, draw and present a narrative about the historical stories that they have heard.

Memorandum

  1. 5 3 2 1 4
  2. Similarities: has wheels.

needs a driver, etc.

Differences: streamlining, speed, power, etc.

c) 1. ox walk/carry sleigh of branches

2. Own answers.

3. Own answers.

4. Most: c Least: b

5. Wood.

6. Probably all three.

d) 1. Causes: comfort, speed.

Results: Buses, cars, bicycles, roller skates, gears, occupations, roads, etc.

  1. 10 (Ox-wagon, hooded cart, bicycle, motor car, horse, horse-cart, sedan chair, bearers, coach, pushcart).
  2. Own answers.
  3. Own answers.
  4. Balance better than when carried by hand.
  5. Curtain – could be opened (more privacy, especially for ?
  6. Wheelbarrow.
  7. Get into motion faster.
  8. One has a canopy, the other is open.
  9. Motorcar and bicycle do not fit.
  10. Own answers.

.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
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Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
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Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
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how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 4. OpenStax CNX. Sep 17, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11089/1.1
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