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Sosiale wetenskappe: aardrykskunde

Graad 7

Kaartwerk

Module 10

Die lees, ontleding en vertolking van topografiese kaarte

  • Die vermoë om kaarte te gebruik en te vertolk is ‘n belangrike onderdeel van ‘n mens se aardrykskundige vaardighede. As jy ‘n kaart gebruik, moet jy onthou dat: – die werklikheid op skaal verklein is; – die verskynsels en patrone gesien word asof ‘n mens van bo-af neerkyk op die landskap; – simbole gebruik word om kenmerke en verskynsels voor te stel.
  • Verskillende soorte kaarte word vir verskillende funksies geteken.

Aktiwiteit 1:

Om ‘n verskeidenheid kaarte as aardrykskundige en omgewingsbronne te identifiseer

[lu 1.1]

  • Kyk hoeveel verskillende soorte kaarte jy in jou atlas kan identifiseer. Skryf van die name onder mekaar neer en dui elkeen se belangrikste funksie aan.

Aktiwiteit 2:

Om kaarte wat ‘n verskeidenheid inligting bevat te interpreteer

[lu 1.2]

  • Verdeel in groepe. Gaan soek gedurende die volgende week kaarte wat vir ‘n verskeidenheid doeleindes in jou omgewing gebruik word. Reisagentskappe, eiendomsagente, koerante, tydskrifte, motorhawens, bouers, ens. kan genader word. Stel uit elke groep ‘n eie kaartversameling saam. Maak ‘n tabel soos hierbo en noem elke kaart se funksie.
Gevind by Funksie
Reisagentskappe
Eiendomsagente
Koerante
Tydskrifte
Motorhawens
Bouers

In grade 4 tot 6 het jy alreeds kennis gemaak met baie belangrike feite oor kaartwerk. Die vier belangrikste kenmerke van TOPOGRAFIESE KAARTE is:

  • dis ‘n verkleinde weergawe van die werklikheid en moet op ‘n spesifieke skaal geteken word;
  • verskynsels word deur simbole op die kaart aangedui;
  • rigting moet op ‘n kaart bepaal kan word;
  • hoogte word deur kontoerlyne aangedui.

Kom ons kyk na elkeen van die aspekte:

1. Verskillende skale en afstandberekening

Jy weet reeds dat ‘n kaart ‘n verkleining is van die werklikheid soos van bo-af gesien. Om ‘n kaart so te kan verklein, moet jy van ‘n sekere skaal gebruik maak.

Die skaal van ‘n kaart MOET onderaan die kaart aangedui word. Daar is verskillende soorte skale wat gebruik kan word:

Lynskaal

Op ‘n lynskaal kan jy direk die afstand tussen twee plekke afmeet.

Verhoudingskaal

bv. 1:50 000

Dit beteken dat 1 sentimeter (of watter ander lengte-eenheid ook al) op die kaart gelyk is aan 50 000 sentimeter (dieselfde lengte-eenheid) in die werklikheid.

As twee plekke op die kaart 4 cm uitmekaar is, sal jy dus eers ‘n berekening moet doen om die werklike afstand te bepaal. Dit sal soos volg lyk : 4 × 50 000 = 200 000 cm

= 200 000 ÷ 100 000 = 2 km

Woordskaal

bv. 1 cm stel 20 km voor.

As die afstand tussen twee plekke op die kaart 3 cm is, sal jy ook eers ‘n berekening moet doen.Dit lyk soos volg : 3 × 20 = 60 km

Een of al die verskillende soorte skale kan op ‘n spesifieke kaart aangedui word.

Aktiwiteit 3:

Om vertroud te raak met die gebruik van lynskaal

[lu 1.3]

1. Meet jou klaskamer se lengte en breedte in meter en teken dan ‘n vloerplan daarvan. Gebruik ‘n skaal van 2 cm om 1 meter voor te stel.

Teken nog ‘n vloerplan van jou klaskamer, maar gebruik ‘n skaal van 1 cm om 1 meter voor te stel.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Aardrykskunde graad 7. OpenStax CNX. Sep 09, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11020/1.1
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