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Technology

Grade 8

Structures

Module 1

Structures

Introduction

  • You have already become acquainted with technology and the process that we follow to solve problems. This module aims to equip you to accept a challenge involving structures. You will be guided through the process so that you can compile your own portfolio when you face the challenge at the end of the chapter. You will also be doing focus tasks to improve your ability to communicate graphically, which will help you when you have to produce sketches and do a presentation to introduce your work.
  • Keep the portfolio in mind:

Technology projects frequently involve solving some kind of problem. There are particular steps that have to be followed in such an instance. These steps involve the technological process. This process does not comprise a set of rules to be followed, but has guidelines, or steps, that help you to solve the problem logically and meaningfully.

The portfolio is the “story” of how you plan to go about solving the problem. It could consist of a text, pictures, sketches, formal drawings, questionnaires, photographs, etc. It should sum up each step of the project from beginning to end. Your educator will show you an example of such a portfolio.

Activity 1

Structures

  • Just about everything surrounding us is a structure of some kind, or forms part of a structure. You might think of buildings, cranes, bridges, etc. We easily forget that nature also provides many structures. Just think of a spider’s web, for instance, your skull, or the carapace of a tortoise. Structures are divided into two main groups:

Natural structures and man-made structures

  • People manufacture structures in workshops and factories. All products manufactured by people have structure, even the containers in which products are packaged.

Functions of structures:

Structures have the following functions:

Support, e.g. a chair

Protection, e.g. the carapace of a tortoise

Bridging a gap, e.g. a bridge

  • Structures are divided further into framing structures and casing/capsular structures. The function and the shape of a structure determine whether it is classed as a frame or casing/capsule. A pair of glasses has a framing structure, while your home has a casing/capsular structure. Both are manufactured by people.

Assignment 1

  • This assignment requires that you identify and describe the structures of a house.

  • Create a table like the following:
ITEM CASING/FRAME FUNCTION
E.g. roof trusses Frame Strengthens and supports
  • Complete the task according to the following guidelines:
  • Identify the structures of the house. You could also identify common items inside the house, e.g. tables and chairs.
  • Classify these items as frames or capsules/casings.
  • Indicate the function of each item.
LO 2.1

Assessment

LO 2
TECHNOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING The learner will be able to understand and apply relevant technological knowledge ethically and responsibly.
This is demonstrated when the learner:
structures:2.1 demonstrate knowledge and understanding of frame structures:
  • the use and application of basic structural components (columns, beams, arches, buttresses, struts, stays, guys, ties);
  • reinforcing techniques for frame structures (triangulation, webs and fillets, orientation and cross-sectional area and members);
  • how frame structures can be made strong (e.g. relationship between the size and the shape of the base, the centre of gravity and stability;
processing:2.2 demonstrates a knowledge and understanding of how materials can be processed to change or improve their properties by adapting them to suit particular purposes:
  • to withstand forces (tension, compression, bending, torsion, shear);
  • to increase strengths or life-span;
  • how specific properties suitable for packaging can be achieved.

Memorandum

ACTIVITY 1

  • The leaf : Encourage the learners to mention further examples of natural structures and to record these in the vacant space surrounding the leaf. The same is applicable to the crane and the examples used to illustrate particular functions .

Assignment 1

  • Consider letting each learner build a cardboard model of a house in advance.
  • Allow a fair amount of time for discussion of the learners' tables so that a maximum number of structures can eventually be listed. The list of examples provided below is incomplete.
ITEM CASING/FRAME FUNCTION
Walls Shell/casing Support, protection
Lintels Frame Reinforcement/strengthening
Door and window frames Frame Support, bridging
Roof trusses Frame/casing Bridging, support
TV cupboard Frame/shell Protection
Roof Shell Protection
Door frames Frame Support
Railings Frame Support
Curtain rails Frame Support
Chairs Frame Support
Tables Frame /shell Support / bridging
Shelves Frame Support

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Technology grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 13, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11052/1.1
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