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  1. A powerful factor in increasing private investment (lowering transport costs), and
  2. In creating new jobs and,
  3. In promoting long term growth in all five of Portugal’s regions, and
  4. Positive impacts on the government’s budget.
    How positive? New tax revenue generated by the road projects exceeded the costs of road investments by government.

Interesting corollary¬—Portugal along with Greece and Spain are in a bad way in 2014 – high fiscal deficits and debt owed to other European nations. If to decrease the deficit Portugal sharply cuts spending in roads, this could decrease long term growth.

Also you will see that technological advances everywhere, and especially in emerging nations require huge amounts of investment, both human and physical capital. Change, when it occurs, now comes fairly swiftly, due to technological innovation made possible by investment in human capital.

Traditionally, the World Bank and the U.N. have divided the world’s countries into 3 categories:

  • Developed
  • Developing
  • Under Developed (definition now obsolete?)

With the kind of rapid technological change underway, combined with globalization and increasing inter-connectedness of world markets, these categories will be obsolete by 2025.

In 2025, nations will not be categorized as developed or developing, but as smart, smarter and smartest.

With advances in Biotech, Nanotech and Infotech, and with increasing degrees of competition flowing from globalization, most people will have to change not just jobs, but careers 2-3 times in a lifetime.

Only the well-educated, highly adaptable will thrive. Keep focused on India . Today one South Korean produces as much as 20 Indians (and have some GDP but S. Korea 1/20 the number of people). But India has a large, growing reservoir of smartness. Combine this with democracy plus a higher education system still superior to China = Great Prospects, provided India finally begins to rectify a very large deficit in one type of physical capital – infrastructure, including roads, ports, harbors.

Models of economic growth

Increasingly, nations seek to increase not merely economic growth, but sustainable economic growth over time. We postpone until Chapter___ discussion of issues on sustainable growth, such as air and water pollution, sensible use of natural capital (energy, forests, water and fisheries) and climate change.

In the past six decades economic growth in emerging nations has been substantial, but not always sustainable. However, it is undeniable that such economic growth as has occurred in emerging nations has had very significant beneficial effects on the world’s poorest.

Growth has sharply reduced the incidence of immizzeration and deprivation. The international definition of poverty on income per person of less than U.S.$1.25 per day. The share of the world’s population living on less than $1.25/day has dropped from 30% in 2000 to 10% in 2014. Growth has helped to drastically increase life expectancy. A century ago, life expectancy at birth worldwide was but 30 years. By 2014, life expectancy had reached 70 years, and in developed nations such as Sweden and Italy, 82 years. "The Headwinds Return" ,Economist, , September 13, 2014. Infant mortality has also fallen very sharply especially in emerging nations, from China to Peru. In 1990, an infant mortality rate (under 5 years) in Ethiopia was 200 deaths, Bangladesh 149, Cambodia 120, Peru 88 and China 50. In all these nations’ rates in infant mortality in 2002 were at least 60% below 1990.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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