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The point of specialized token construct is visually made through yet another example given belwo. Two simultaneous examples are implemented, using an entity reference “&RightArrow;” . Note the impact of using “mover” element on the character reference “&RightArrow;” . Compare the two outputs. Though the lay out of the arrow and text has not changed, but the arrow is stretched to accommodate the length of the text !

Modified rendering

<m:math display="block"> <m:mrow> <m:mi> x </m:mi> <m:mo> &RightArrow; </m:mo> <m:mtext> maps to </m:mtext> <m:mi> y </m:mi> </m:mrow> </m:math> <m:math display="block"> <m:mrow> <m:mi> x </m:mi> <m:mover> <m:mo> &RightArrow; </m:mo> <m:mtext> maps to </m:mtext> </m:mover> <m:mi> y </m:mi> </m:mrow> </m:math>

Save the file after editing as “test.xml”. The display looks like :

x maps to y x maps to y

"mi" token element

The “mi” element is used to display mathematical identifiers. Identifiers in MathML include literals, constants, name of the angle, trigonometric function etc. The example, here, displays both single and multi character identifiers.

Display with mi element

<m:math display="block"> <m:mtext>I is displayed as : </m:mtext> <m:mi> I </m:mi> <m:mtext>&nbsp;&nbsp;and trigonometric sine function is displayed as : </m:mtext> <m:mi> sin </m:mi> <m:mi> θ </m:mi> </m:math>

Save the file after editing as “test3.xml”. The display looks like :

I is displayed as : I and trigonometric sine function is displayed as : sin θ

Here "&nbsp;" has been used to create two spaces to improve readability.

Note that default rendering of a single character by "mi" element is italic – as against "normal". Multiple characters are, however, displayed as normal. It means that if we want to have a normal display, then we would require to override the default behavior of the ‘mi” element and specify normal display, using “mathvariant” attribute as demonstrated in the example below.

Display with mi element

<m:math display="block"> <m:mtext>Normal I is :&nbsp;&nbsp;</m:mtext> <m:mi mathvariant='normal'> I </m:mi> </m:math>

Save the file after editing as “test3.xml”. The display looks like :

Normal I is : I

The presentation style of a single character in italic form is not without any reason. This suggests that we might be using single character mostly in italic form for mathematical display. In any case, if you differ, you can change the same to normal.

The “mi” element renders character or sequence of characters without any surrounding space. This element together with other character rendering elements (“mn” and “mo”) forms the building blocks of mathematical display, using MathML. It must also be observed that “mi” implements common attributes available for the token element and does not implement additional attributes or attributes specific to the element.

"mn" token element

The “mn” element is a flexible constructor to display unsigned real numbers of various types and formats, including decimals or combination of characters, which convey real number. In the scheme of the rendering of mathematical content under MathML environment, it is preferred to keep sign as an operator and its rendering with "mo" element. This approach is consistent with spacing (inter elements) requirement of operator display.

Display of real numbers

<m:math display="block"> <m:mtext>Forty: </m:mtext> <m:mn> Forty ;</m:mn> <m:mtext>10 : </m:mtext><m:mn> 10 ; &nbsp;</m:mn> <m:mtext>4.23: </m:mtext> <m:mn> 4.23 ; &nbsp;</m:mn> <m:mtext>1,000: </m:mtext> <m:mn> 1,000 ; &nbsp;</m:mn> <m:mtext>0.1e10: </m:mtext> <m:mn> 0.1e10 ; &nbsp;</m:mn> <m:mtext>CX: </m:mtext> <m:mn> CX ; &nbsp;</m:mn> </m:math>

Save the file after editing as “test.xml”. The display looks like :

Forty: Forty ; 10 : 10 ; 4.23: 4.23 ; 1,000: 1,000 ; 0.1e10: 0.1e10 ; CX: CX ;

Note that default rendering style of the characters are “normal” and as such, we do not need to use “mathvariant” attribute to set the display normal. The “mn” element, however, is not suitable for all kinds of numbers. For example, following constants are displayed using “mi” element : <mi> &pi; </mi> <mi> &ImaginaryI; </mi> <mi> &ExponentialE; </mi>

Numbers displayed by mi element

<m:math display="block"> <m:mtext>Complex number : &ThinSpace;</m:mtext> <m:mn> 1 </m:mn> <m:mo> + </m:mo> <m:mn> 2 </m:mn> <m:mo> &InvisibleTimes; </m:mo> <m:mi> &ImaginaryI;</m:mi> </m:math>

Save the file after editing as “test.xml”. The display looks like :

Complex number :   1 + 2

A ratio, on the other hand, is presented with the help of “mfrac” element. See the example code for displaying a ratio of the form (p/q) :

Numbers not displayed by “mfrac” element

<m:math display="block"> <m:mtext>Ratio is :</m:mtext> <m:mfrac> <m:mn> 22 </m:mn> <m:mn> 7 </m:mn> </m:mfrac><m:mi> ; </m:mi> </m:math>

Save the file after editing as “test.xml”. The display looks like :

Ratio is : 22 7 ;

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A primer in mathml. OpenStax CNX. Apr 19, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10345/1.16
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