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The point of specialized token construct is visually made through yet another example given belwo. Two simultaneous examples are implemented, using an entity reference “&RightArrow;” . Note the impact of using “mover” element on the character reference “&RightArrow;” . Compare the two outputs. Though the lay out of the arrow and text has not changed, but the arrow is stretched to accommodate the length of the text !

Modified rendering

<m:math display="block"> <m:mrow> <m:mi> x </m:mi> <m:mo> &RightArrow; </m:mo> <m:mtext> maps to </m:mtext> <m:mi> y </m:mi> </m:mrow> </m:math> <m:math display="block"> <m:mrow> <m:mi> x </m:mi> <m:mover> <m:mo> &RightArrow; </m:mo> <m:mtext> maps to </m:mtext> </m:mover> <m:mi> y </m:mi> </m:mrow> </m:math>

Save the file after editing as “test.xml”. The display looks like :

x maps to y x maps to y

"mi" token element

The “mi” element is used to display mathematical identifiers. Identifiers in MathML include literals, constants, name of the angle, trigonometric function etc. The example, here, displays both single and multi character identifiers.

Display with mi element

<m:math display="block"> <m:mtext>I is displayed as : </m:mtext> <m:mi> I </m:mi> <m:mtext>&nbsp;&nbsp;and trigonometric sine function is displayed as : </m:mtext> <m:mi> sin </m:mi> <m:mi> θ </m:mi> </m:math>

Save the file after editing as “test3.xml”. The display looks like :

I is displayed as : I and trigonometric sine function is displayed as : sin θ

Here "&nbsp;" has been used to create two spaces to improve readability.

Note that default rendering of a single character by "mi" element is italic – as against "normal". Multiple characters are, however, displayed as normal. It means that if we want to have a normal display, then we would require to override the default behavior of the ‘mi” element and specify normal display, using “mathvariant” attribute as demonstrated in the example below.

Display with mi element

<m:math display="block"> <m:mtext>Normal I is :&nbsp;&nbsp;</m:mtext> <m:mi mathvariant='normal'> I </m:mi> </m:math>

Save the file after editing as “test3.xml”. The display looks like :

Normal I is : I

The presentation style of a single character in italic form is not without any reason. This suggests that we might be using single character mostly in italic form for mathematical display. In any case, if you differ, you can change the same to normal.

The “mi” element renders character or sequence of characters without any surrounding space. This element together with other character rendering elements (“mn” and “mo”) forms the building blocks of mathematical display, using MathML. It must also be observed that “mi” implements common attributes available for the token element and does not implement additional attributes or attributes specific to the element.

"mn" token element

The “mn” element is a flexible constructor to display unsigned real numbers of various types and formats, including decimals or combination of characters, which convey real number. In the scheme of the rendering of mathematical content under MathML environment, it is preferred to keep sign as an operator and its rendering with "mo" element. This approach is consistent with spacing (inter elements) requirement of operator display.

Display of real numbers

<m:math display="block"> <m:mtext>Forty: </m:mtext> <m:mn> Forty ;</m:mn> <m:mtext>10 : </m:mtext><m:mn> 10 ; &nbsp;</m:mn> <m:mtext>4.23: </m:mtext> <m:mn> 4.23 ; &nbsp;</m:mn> <m:mtext>1,000: </m:mtext> <m:mn> 1,000 ; &nbsp;</m:mn> <m:mtext>0.1e10: </m:mtext> <m:mn> 0.1e10 ; &nbsp;</m:mn> <m:mtext>CX: </m:mtext> <m:mn> CX ; &nbsp;</m:mn> </m:math>

Save the file after editing as “test.xml”. The display looks like :

Forty: Forty ; 10 : 10 ; 4.23: 4.23 ; 1,000: 1,000 ; 0.1e10: 0.1e10 ; CX: CX ;

Note that default rendering style of the characters are “normal” and as such, we do not need to use “mathvariant” attribute to set the display normal. The “mn” element, however, is not suitable for all kinds of numbers. For example, following constants are displayed using “mi” element : <mi> &pi; </mi> <mi> &ImaginaryI; </mi> <mi> &ExponentialE; </mi>

Numbers displayed by mi element

<m:math display="block"> <m:mtext>Complex number : &ThinSpace;</m:mtext> <m:mn> 1 </m:mn> <m:mo> + </m:mo> <m:mn> 2 </m:mn> <m:mo> &InvisibleTimes; </m:mo> <m:mi> &ImaginaryI;</m:mi> </m:math>

Save the file after editing as “test.xml”. The display looks like :

Complex number :   1 + 2

A ratio, on the other hand, is presented with the help of “mfrac” element. See the example code for displaying a ratio of the form (p/q) :

Numbers not displayed by “mfrac” element

<m:math display="block"> <m:mtext>Ratio is :</m:mtext> <m:mfrac> <m:mn> 22 </m:mn> <m:mn> 7 </m:mn> </m:mfrac><m:mi> ; </m:mi> </m:math>

Save the file after editing as “test.xml”. The display looks like :

Ratio is : 22 7 ;

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A primer in mathml. OpenStax CNX. Apr 19, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10345/1.16
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