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Collections

The C# library provides a number of generic data structure classes, such as Stack , and Queue , which store and retrieve references to objects as type Object . These classes can be used to create objects that can store and retrieve objects of any class.

Run the program

I encourage you to copy the code from Listing 7 . Use that code to create a C# console project. Compile and run the project. Experiment with the code, makingchanges, and observing the results of your changes. Make certain that you can explain why your changes behave as they do.

Run my program

Click here to download a zip file containing my version of the program. Extract the folder named Polymorph04 from the zip file and save it somewhere on your disk. Start Visual C# 2010 Express and select Open Project... from the File menu. Navigate to the project folder and select the file with the extension of .sln . This should cause the project to open and be ready to run or debug as described in the earlier module titled Getting Started .

Summary

Polymorphism manifests itself in C# in the form of multiple methods having the same name.

From a practical programming viewpoint, polymorphism manifests itself in three distinct forms in C#:

  • Method overloading
  • Method overriding through class inheritance
  • Method overriding through interface inheritance

In this module, I have continued my discussion of the implementation of polymorphism using method overriding through class inheritance, and haveconcentrated on a special case in that category.

More specifically, I have discussed the use of the Object class as a completely generic type for storing references to objects of subclasstypes, and have explained how that results in a very useful form of runtime polymorphism.

I briefly mentioned the default version of the methods defined in the Object class, and explained that in many cases, those default versions are meant to be overridden.

I provided a sample program that illustrates the overriding of the ToString method, which is one of the methods defined in the Object class.

Miscellaneous

This section contains a variety of miscellaneous information.

Housekeeping material
  • Module name: Xna0116-Runtime Polymorphism and the Object Class
  • File: Xna0116.htm
  • Published: 02/27/14
Disclaimers:

Financial : Although the Connexions site makes it possible for you to download a PDF file for thismodule at no charge, and also makes it possible for you to purchase a pre-printed version of the PDF file, you should beaware that some of the HTML elements in this module may not translate well into PDF.

I also want you to know that, I receive no financial compensation from the Connexions website even if you purchase the PDF version of the module.

In the past, unknown individuals have copied my modules from cnx.org, converted them to Kindle books, and placed them for sale on Amazon.com showing me as the author. Ineither receive compensation for those sales nor do I know who does receive compensation. If you purchase such a book, please beaware that it is a copy of a module that is freely available on cnx.org and that it was made and published withoutmy prior knowledge.

Affiliation : I am a professor of Computer Information Technology at Austin Community College in Austin, TX.

Complete program listing

A complete listing of the program discussed in this module is provided in Listing 7 .

Listing 7 . Project Polymorph04.

/*Project Polymorph04 Copyright 2009, R.G.BaldwinThis program illustrates polymorphic behavior and the Object classProgram output is:A ToString in class BToString in class C *********************************************************/using System; class A : Object {//This class is empty }//end class A//======================================================// class B : A {public override String ToString() { return "ToString in class B";}//end overridden ToString() }//end class B//======================================================// class C : B {public override String ToString() { return "ToString in class C";}//end overridden ToString() }//end class B//======================================================// public class Polymorph04 {public static void Main() { Object varA = new A();String v1 = varA.ToString(); Console.WriteLine(v1);Object varB = new B(); String v2 = varB.ToString();Console.WriteLine(v2); Object varC = new C();String v3 = varC.ToString(); Console.WriteLine(v3);//Pause until user presses any key. Console.ReadKey();}//end Main }//end class Polymorph04

-end-

Questions & Answers

I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Xna game studio. OpenStax CNX. Feb 28, 2014 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11634/1.6
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