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With the exception of (//) and (%), the behavior of all of the operators in Figure 1 should be self-explanatory. The behavior of those two operators was explained in the earlier module titled Itse1359-1020-Numbers .

Relational operators

These are the operators that are typically used in the conditional clause of decision logic. Basically the operators test to determine if the operatordescribes the relationship between the left and right operands. If so, the expression returns true. Otherwise, it returns false.

Figure 2 shows all, or at least most of the relational operators.

Figure 2 . Relational operators.
<a<b (true if a is less than b)<= a<= b (true if a is less than or equal to b) == a == b (true if a is equal to b)!= a != b (true if a is not equal to b)>= a>= b (true if a is greater than or equal to b)>a>b (true if a is greater than b)

Logical operators

The logical operators are shown in Figure 3 .

Figure 3 . Logical operators.
and And a and b (true if both a and b are true) or Inclusive Or a or b (true if either a or b are true)not Negation not a (switch a from true to false or from false to true)&Bitwise And a&b ^ Bitwise Exclusive Or a ^ b| Bitwise Inclusive Or a | b ~ Bitwise Inversion ~ a

The operators in Figure 3 are often used to embellish the relational operators from Figure 2 in decision logic.

The first operator ( and ) returns true if both operands are true.

The second operator ( or ) returns true if either operand is true.

The third operator ( not ) has only one operand and it is on the right side of the operator. It switches the operand from true to false or from false to true.

The script in Listing 1 shows examples of the use of these three operators in conjunction with the equality relational operator.

Listing 1 . Logical operators "and", "or", and "not".
a=5 print(a==5 and a==5)print(a==5 and a==4) print(a==5 and not a==5)print(a==5 and not a==4) print(a==5 or a==5)print(a==5 or a==4) print(a==4 or a==4)#This script produces the following output:True FalseFalse TrueTrue TrueFalse

The last four operators in Figure 3 are used to perform logical operations at the bit level. An explanation of these operators is beyond the scope ofthis module.

Bit shift operators

The operators in Figure 4 are used to shift bits to the right or left. As with the bitwise logical operators, a discussion of the behavior of these operatorsis beyond the scope of this module.

Figure 4 . Bit shift operators.
Left Shift a<<b Right Shift a>>b

Miscellaneous operators

Figure 5 shows a variety of miscellaneous operators. You are already familiar with the behavior of the concatenation operator. Thebehavior of the remaining operators will be explained when and if they are used in future modules.

Figure 5 . Miscellaneous operators.
Concatenation seq1 + seq2 Containment Test obj in seqIdentity a is b Identity a is not bIndexed Assignment obj[k] = vIndexed Deletion del obj[k]Indexing obj[k]Slice Assignment seq[i:j] = valuesSlice Deletion del seq[i:j] Slicing seq[i:j]String Formatting s % objTruth Test obj truth(obj)

Discussion and sample code

Other than the code shown in Listing 1 , I won't present code to illustrate the use of these operators in thismodule. Instead, I will use the operators in code in future modules and discuss them, as appropriate when they are used.


This section contains a variety of miscellaneous information.

Housekeeping material
  • Module name: Itse1359-1220-Operators
  • File: Itse1359-1220.htm
  • Published: 10/26/14
  • Revised: 02/25/15

Financial : Although the Connexions site makes it possible for you to download a PDF file for thismodule at no charge, and also makes it possible for you to purchase a pre-printed version of the PDF file, you should beaware that some of the HTML elements in this module may not translate well into PDF.

I also want you to know that, I receive no financial compensation from the Connexions website even if you purchase the PDF version of the module.

In the past, unknown individuals have copied my modules from cnx.org, converted them to Kindle books, and placed them for sale on Amazon.com showing me as the author. Ineither receive compensation for those sales nor do I know who does receive compensation. If you purchase such a book, please beaware that it is a copy of a module that is freely available on cnx.org and that it was made and published withoutmy prior knowledge.

Affiliation : I am a professor of Computer Information Technology at Austin Community College in Austin, TX.


Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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