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An expression for the area of a circle

From your earlier coursework, you should know that the area of a circle is given by

A = PI * r^2


  • A is the area.
  • PI is the mathematical constant 3.14159...
  • r is the radius of the circle.

Proportional to the square of the radius

From this, we can conclude that the area of a circle is not proportional to the radius. Instead, it is proportional to the square of the radius as in

A $ r^2

If you change the radius...

If you change the value of the radius, the area changes in proportion to the square of the radius. If the radius doubles, the area increases by four. If theradius is decreased by 25-percent, the area decreases by more than 25-percent. This is illustrated by the script in Listing 3 .

Listing 3 . Area is proportional to radius squared.
<!-- File JavaScript03.html --><html><body><script language="JavaScript1.3">var r = 10 var A = Math.PI * Math.pow(r,2)document.write("r =" + r + ", A = " + A + "<br/>") //Multiply r by 2. Then display r and Cr = r * 2 var A = Math.PI * Math.pow(r,2)document.write("r =" + r + ", A = " + A + "<br/>")//Reduce r by 25%, Then display r and C r = r * (1 - 25/100)var A = Math.PI * Math.pow(r,2) document.write("r =" + r +", A = " + A + "<br/>")//Compute and the display the cube root // of a number.var X = Math.pow(8,1/3) document.write("Cube root of 8 = " + X)</script></body></html>

The JavaScript Math.pow method

Listing 3 calls a built-in JavaScript method that I have not used before: Math.pow . This method is called to raise a value to a power. It requires two parameters. The first parameter is the valuethat is to be raised to a power and the second parameter is the power to which the value is to be raised.

The method returns the value raised to the power.

Fractional exponents

Although this topic is not directly related to the discussion on proportionality, as long as I am introducing the method named Math.pow , I will point out the it is legal for the exponent to be a fraction. The last little bit of code in Listing 3 raises the value 8 to the 1/3 power. This actually computes the cube root of the value 8. As you shouldbe able to confirm in your head, the cube root of 8 is 2, because two raised to the third power is 8.

Output from the script

When you open the script shown in Listing 3 in your browser, the text shown in Figure 3 should appear in your browser window.

Figure 3 . Screen output for Listing #3.
r =10, A = 314.1592653589793 r =20, A = 1256.6370614359173r =15, A = 706.8583470577034 Cube root of 8 = 2

An examination of the first three lines of text in Figure 3 should confirm that they satisfy the proportionality rules for the square of theradius described earlier .

The last line of text in Figure 3 confirms that the Math.pow method can be used to compute roots by specifying fractional exponents as thesecond parameter.

Run the scripts

I encourage you to run the scripts that I have presented in this lesson to confirm that you get the same results. Copy the code for each script into atext file with an extension of html. Then open that file in your browser. Experiment with the code, making changes, and observing the results of your changes. Makecertain that you can explain why your changes behave as they do.


This section contains a variety of miscellaneous information.

Housekeeping material
  • Module name: GAME 2302-0330 Scale Factors, Ratios, and Proportions
  • File: Game0330.htm
  • Revised: 01/25/16

Financial : Although the Connexions site makes it possible for you to download a PDFfile for this module at no charge, and also makes it possible for you to purchase a pre-printed version of the PDF file, you should be aware thatsome of the HTML elements in this module may not translate well into PDF.

I also want you to know that, I receive no financial compensation from the Connexions website even if you purchase the PDF version of the module.

In the past, unknown individuals have copied my modules from cnx.org, converted them to Kindle books, and placed them for sale on Amazon.comshowing me as the author. I neither receive compensation for those sales nor do I know who does receive compensation. If you purchase such a book, pleasebe aware that it is a copy of a module that is freely available on cnx.org and that it was made and published without my prior knowledge.

Affiliation : I am a professor of Computer Information Technology at Austin Community College in Austin, TX.


Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
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Source:  OpenStax, Game 2302 - mathematical applications for game development. OpenStax CNX. Jan 09, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11450/1.33
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