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Functions are predefined formulas that simplify manual entry and allows us to carry out calculations that would otherwise be impossible.


The vast majority of engineering computations require a complex set of mathematical operations such as logarithms and trigonometric functions. Functions are predefined formulas that simplify manual entry and allows us to carry out calculations that would otherwise be impossible. Excel and other mainstream spreadsheet apps have an extensive library of built-in functions. For example, we can use the SUM function to total all the values in a column or use the MAX function to find the biggest number in a range of cells. However, functions can do a lot more than just math. They can look up data in another location, calculate cells only if they meet a specific criteria and combine the contents of two or more cells.

Elements of a function

A function can consist of five elements:

  • Numerical values or text-strings (such as 1.2, or HeatLosses).
  • Cell references (including named cells and ranges).
  • Operators.
  • Worksheet functions (e.g. SUM or AVERAGE) and their arguments.
  • Parentheses to control the sequence of arithmetic operations.

Miscellaneous functions

The AVERAGE function returns the average of all the values in that array. The syntax is as follows: =AVERAGE(A1:B5)

The MIN function returns the smallest number in a set of values. The syntax is as follows: =MIN(A1:B5)

The MAX function returns the largest value in a set of values. The syntax is as follows: =MAX(A1:B5)

The SUM function adds all the numbers specified in a range. The syntax is as follows: =SUM([number1],[number2],...])

The CONVERT function converts a number from one measurement system to another. The syntax for the CONVERT function is: =CONVERT(number,from_unit,to_unit) The CONVERT function’s arguments are as follows:

  • number: The value in from_units to convert.
  • from_unit: The unit for number.
  • to_unit: The unit for the result.
Conversion of Temperature Units
Temperature From_unit or to_unit
Degree Celsius "C" (or "cel")
Degree Fahrenheit "F" (or "fah")
Kelvin "K" (or "kel")
Conversion of Power Units.
Power From_unit or to_unit
Horsepower "HP" (or "h")
Watt "W" (or "w")
Conversion of Force Units.
Force From_unit or to_unit
Newton "N"
Pound force "lbf"

To convert kilometers to miles: =CONVERT(A2,"km","mi")

To convert Celsius to Fahrenheit: =CONVERT(A6,"C","F")

To convert milligrams to kilograms: =CONVERT(A10,"mg","kg")

To convert days to seconds: =CONVERT(A14,"day","sec")

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Engineering computation with spreadsheets. OpenStax CNX. Sep 30, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11235/1.12
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