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New models of shared decision-making emerged since 2001 which provided specific structures for implementation. Researchers at the Center for Research in Educational Policy at the University of Memphis developed the Total Teamwork System (TTS), based on Vroom and Yetton’s original model. When teams used TTS the decisions were more acceptable. When not used, negative attributions were generated (Valesky, Horgan, Caughey,&Smith, 2003). Kepner-Tregoe (2004) emphasized that correctly identifying the problem to be addressed as an essential first step prior to data gathering, problem analysis, and solution generation. Another model published since 2001 is the synergistic decision-making model which focused on the need for communication skills: listening, responding, clarifying, and reinforcing-- all of which are necessary to facilitate shared decision-making (Lambert, 2004).


Using the same procedures and questions, 13 researchers and moderators led 13 focus groups from 2004 through 2006. Leadership questions around democratic community, school improvement, and social justice queried leaders concerning their practices and perceptions (Murphy, 2002). Each session’s protocol began with building rapport and asking questions, followed by summaries of key points (see Krueger&Casey, 2000). Recordings were made of the proceedings and transcribed verbatim.

Each of the three authors independently read all focus group transcripts (Denzin&Lincoln, 1994) noting participant comments, strands of thinking, and examples. Independent reading and analyses preceded conference calls to arrive at themes. After several cycles of rereading, coding, analyses, and conferencing, two themes emerged. A constant comparison method (Patton, 1990), the final step, aligned principal statements with the themes.

Participants were 82 principals from small and medium sized school districts with none having more than 9,999 students. Principals represented a convenience sample, accessible to the researchers, who agreed to participate with their identity remaining confidential. The typical size of the focus groups was five to seven principals. Schools ranged in enrollment from under 500 to almost 2500. Grade level configurations differed and five schools served students from prekindergarten through twelfth grades.


Theme 1: factors that affect decision-making

Communication is an important factor in the decision-making process. While principals voiced that communication of decision-making processes and outcomes was important for developing and maintaining trust, they did not share specific mechanisms for doing so. As an example, none identified email blasts, web pages, phone systems, blogs, town meetings, etc., as specific ways of sharing important content and processes of decisions. Elementary Principal 41 (Southwest/West, 10/11/2005) suggested the need, “…to have established avenues for the communication…” High School Principal 83 (Midwest, 6/18/2006) expressed that she shared how decisions are to be made, “…there has to be a communication on what is the method of decision that is going to being [ sic ] used. …”

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review, volume 12, number 2 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Sep 26, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11360/1.3
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