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Kaback (2006) stated that high stakes testing will not become an endangered species anytime soon given America’s current obsession for testing. Parents, policymakers, and educators view the results of high stakes testing as proof of student learning (Scherer, 2005). Driesler (2001) reported that 83% of parents responded that tests provide important information about children’s education and 90% of parents wanted comparative information about their children and schools. Phelps (2005) reported poll and survey data across numerous years that indicated the general publics’ positive view of standardized testing. The percentage point differential between positive responses and negative responses to standardized testing varied from a +90 for students being required to pass a graduation test, a +80 for knowledge of the five core subjects, +76 for diagnosis, +39 for ranking schools, and a +28 for determining whether a student advances to the next grade. There was even a +86 percentage point differential to a testing question that began with “if your child failed the graduation test the first time.”

Principals’ roles have evolved very quickly since the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (Davis, Darling-Hammond, LaPointe,&Meyerson, 2005). Chrispeels (2004) noted that with its passage, principals are being held to a higher level of accountability for student achievement than ever before in educational history. The change process brought on by this high stakes testing environment may be reflected in principals’ instructional leadership, philosophical orientation to teaching and learning, and deep seated beliefs about the way instruction unfolds (Hope, Brockmeier, Lutfi,&Sermon, 2007). An increased emphasis has been placed on principal leadership to create high performing learning communities for increased student achievement (Zellner&Jinkins, 2001). For instance, Ross and Gray (2006) indicated that increasing transformational leadership practices has led to small important contributions to student achievement. Leadership, in fact, may account for up to 25% of the total school effects (direct and indirect effects) on student achievement (Leithwood, Louis, Anderson, and Wahlstrom, 2004).

Purpose of the study

The primary purpose of this study was to examine Georgia principals’ views about the impact of high stakes testing. Principals were asked to respond to items that crossed six domains; curriculum, teaching, work satisfaction, stress, accountability, and students. A secondary purpose was to determine if there were differences in principals’ responses on the instrument by school configuration, principal’s educational level, gender, and race or ethnicity.

Methodology

Population, sample, and sampling procedure

Approximately 2000 schools on the Georgia Department of Education web site had complete information on principals and school addresses. Of the 2000 schools, there were 1,220 elementary schools, 430 middle schools, and 350 high schools. A stratified random sample of schools was generated by school level resulting in a total sample of 550 schools. The 550 principals were mailed a cover letter and The Principal’s High Stakes Testing Survey . The cover letter included information about the research purpose, confidentiality of the responses, number of survey items, average time for completion, and IRB approval. After the initial mailing and follow-up mailing, 261 of 269 returned surveys were complete and usable for analysis resulting in a 47% response rate.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review, volume 12, number 1 (april 2011). OpenStax CNX. Mar 26, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11285/1.2
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