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Natural sciences

Grade 8

Matter: classification

Module 20

Metals and non-metals

  • A metal typically is a hard, shiny and strong element that is able to conduct heat and electricity.
  • Iron is the most commonly used metal in the world in which we live, though not in its pure form. When iron is combined with a small amount of a non-metal like carbon we obtain an alloy .
  • The study of metals is known as metallurgy .
  • Gold is generally regarded as a metal that symbolizes wealth and prosperity, while platinum and palladium are valuable because of their use in electronics and specialized engineering.
  • Steel is known everywhere and millions of tons of steel are used annually to manufacture items such as washing machines, cars, ships and trains. Stainless steel is also used for cutlery. For this, it is made into an alloy with the use of hard, shiny chromium .
  • A variety of substances can be added to iron to form alloys , e.g. manganese, phosphorus, silicon and sulphur.
  • Aluminium , again, is used extensively for cold drink cans, ladders and objects that are required to be light and rust free. Aluminium is the third most common chemical element on earth as much of the earth’s crust is made up of it. Copper and magnesium are usually added to aluminium to make it suitable for industrial use.
  • Metals can be recycled successfully to protect our natural resources – the gold and silver used in electrical circuits (and in false teeth!), particularly.
  • Bronze – a mixture of copper and tin - is one of the most ancient of alloys.
  • Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc.

Class activity

Recognition of metals and non-metals

  • Identify as many substances as possible from the illustration and classify them as metals and non-metals according to the main element of their substance.

1. Which feature did you consider to determine whether substances were metals or non-metals?

2. Do you think the secretary is prosperous? Provide a reason for your answer?

3. Which substance is taking over from this metal in industry? From what is it made?

4. What is metallurgy?

5. What is steel?

6. The following are the distinctive features of metal. Write down the distinctive features for non-metals:


hard and shiny

pliable and malleable

conducts heat

conducts electricity

7. What is the difference between pliable and malleable?

Assessment of recognition

Were you able to do the classification correctly and to apply your knowledge?

[LO 2.2; LO 2.4]


Learning outcomes 2: Constructing science knowledge

The learner will know and be able to interpret and apply scientific, technological and environmental knowledge.

We know this when the learner

  • is able to categorise information;

2.4 is able to apply knowledge.




1. shiny, hard

2. gold

3. demand

4. study of metals

5. alloy


Hard and shiny - Different colours; not very hard

Pliable and malleable - Brittle, breaks

Conducts heat – No

Conducts electricity - NO

7. Pliable – long threads stretched out.

Malleable – hammered into thin plates/sheets.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11050/1.1
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