<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Natural sciences

The earth and beyond

Rock formations

Educator section


Sedimentary rock formations formed by earlier life forms

  • Sketch: The search for fossil fuels (oil)


1. Oil drill

2. Ocean

  1. Ocean floor
  1. Penetrable rock
  2. Pipeline
  3. Oil
  4. Sedimentary rock

8. Impenetrable rock

Sedimentary rock formations:

Layers of rock on the earth's surface and under water . Formed by debris or earlier life . Debris type forms through the breaking up of rocks and the scattering of the pieces by wind and water to lower levels where they form sand and mud . The ones formed by earlier life are created by the compression of skeletons to form limestone .

Leaner section


Activity: to discuss sedimentary rocks as a type of rock formation [lo 2.3]

  • Large areas of the earth are covered in sedimentary rocks. These rocks are not formed on the surface of the earth only, but frequently also under water. The formations occur in layers.
  • Scientists distinguish between two kinds of sedimentary rock.


  • Existing rocks are broken down through the action of wind and water. The small bits of rock that result from this are carried along in streams and rivers until they reach the sea, where it is deposited as layers of sand and mud.


  • These rocks consist of material from organisms that were alive in very early times.
  • The following illustrations show how these rocks were formed:
1. When fish and other organisms that live in the sea die, their remains sink to the bottom of the sea.
2. Their skeletons and the calcium of their shells form layers on the sea floor.
3. With many years passing, the layers become compressed. They become thick layers of rock known as limestone.
4. These are the main rocks that we see because they are formed on the surface of the earth. They usually are soft.
  • Sedimentary rocks are of importance to people because they provide people with oil, earth gas, coal and stone for building. Sometimes they also contain fossils that provide information about what the earth was like millions of years ago. We'll be learning more about fossils in the rest of the module.
  • Provide captions for the sketch:

The search for fossil fuels (petroleum)

1. ___________________________________________________________________

2. ___________________________________________________________________

3. ___________________________________________________________________

4. ___________________________________________________________________

5. ___________________________________________________________________

6. ___________________________________________________________________

7. ___________________________________________________________________

8. ___________________________________________________________________

  • Explain what you know about sedimentary rocks (in thirty words). Use your own words.












Learning Outcome 2: The learner will know and be able to interpret and apply scientific, technological and environmental knowledge.

Assessment Standard 2.3: We know this when the learner categorises information.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 16, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11079/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Natural sciences grade 6' conversation and receive update notifications?