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Three kingdoms were established in West Africa and they became wealthy due to trade, especially from the east African coast. These kingdoms were Ghana (700 – 1200 B.C.) Mali (1200 – 1500) and Songhai (1350 – 1600) controlled trade in the area between 400 and 1500. Their greatest wealth was gold. Traders brought goods from the Mediterranean area to the towns and cities of Africa in exchange for gold, slaves, wood, coconuts, small products and products made from iron, and salt. Many of the inhabitants were converted to Islam because of their contact with Muslim traders.

Subsequently three of these kingdoms will be discussed briefly.

The Empire of Benin

The Benin Empire (called Edo by its inhabitants) had been established in the tropical forests of the present Nigeria by 100 B.C. Ivory, pepper, body oil and slaves were sold to Portuguese traders. The ruler (“oba”) lived in a vast palace with several inner courtyards and galleries in the walled city of Benin where guards were on duty all the time. The inhabitants of Benin had become skilful metalworkers and artistic woodcarvers, in a region where little agricultural land was available.

The Nok Empire (900 B.C. – 200 A.D.)

The inhabitants of this empire lived in villages, practised agriculture and domesticated animals in the area that is now known as (Northern) Nigeria and the Cameroon. They also produced finished tools of stones, bone and wood, and jewellery and sculptures. The tools were not very effective and agriculture was practised on a small scale. By 400 B.C. the people of the Nok Empire had learnt to work iron. Their iron tools were stronger, more effective and easier to replace and they had learnt to practise farming more successfully.

Iron ore being melted in a furnace

The Empire of Mali

During the first part of the 13 th century, the small Empire of Mali (or Manding) became more powerful than ancient Ghana. By 700 B.C. the empire had become strong and well organised due to trade. They had excellent rulers like Mansa Miam. It was the first West African empire to develop after the spread of Islam.

One of the most famous rulers was Mansa Musa, who exerted strong control over the Saharan trade route. The two important cities of the empire were Mali (the capital) and Timbuktu, the trading centre, which also was a city noted for its many schools. Mali probably was one of the greatest empires in the world of that time. After 1400, Timbuktu became a centre of learning and students from all over the Muslim world attended the Timbuktu University until the 1700s. The people of Manding mined gold and traded with it.

The new Songhai Empire, with Goa as its capital city, developed further along the Niger valley and conquered Timbuktu in 1468. But the golden days of the West African Empires came to an abrupt end in 1509 when the Moroccan army took over the control of the region.


Learning Outcomes(LOs)
LO 1
HISTORICAL ENQUIRY The learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate the past and present.
Assessment Standards(ASs)
We know this when the learner:
1.1 finds sources:
  • identifies sources to help answer the question about the topic;
1.2 works with sources:
  • selects and records relevant information for specific purposes from a variety of sources (e.g. oral, written and visual sources, including maps, graphs and tables, objects, buildings, monuments, museums);
1.3 answers the question:
  • arranges information logically and chronologically in answering questions about people, events, objects, and places in the past.



It is important that the learners are given the criteria for assessment beforehand, eg. originality, neatness, correct facts, etc.

Questions & Answers

explain and give four Example hyperbolic function
Lukman Reply
The denominator of a certain fraction is 9 more than the numerator. If 6 is added to both terms of the fraction, the value of the fraction becomes 2/3. Find the original fraction. 2. The sum of the least and greatest of 3 consecutive integers is 60. What are the valu
1. x + 6 2 -------------- = _ x + 9 + 6 3 x + 6 3 ----------- x -- (cross multiply) x + 15 2 3(x + 6) = 2(x + 15) 3x + 18 = 2x + 30 (-2x from both) x + 18 = 30 (-18 from both) x = 12 Test: 12 + 6 18 2 -------------- = --- = --- 12 + 9 + 6 27 3
2. (x) + (x + 2) = 60 2x + 2 = 60 2x = 58 x = 29 29, 30, & 31
on number 2 question How did you got 2x +2
combine like terms. x + x + 2 is same as 2x + 2
Mark and Don are planning to sell each of their marble collections at a garage sale. If Don has 1 more than 3 times the number of marbles Mark has, how many does each boy have to sell if the total number of marbles is 113?
mariel Reply
Mark = x,. Don = 3x + 1 x + 3x + 1 = 113 4x = 112, x = 28 Mark = 28, Don = 85, 28 + 85 = 113
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find the value of 2x=32
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divide by 2 on each side of the equal sign to solve for x
Want to review on complex number 1.What are complex number 2.How to solve complex number problems.
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use the y -intercept and slope to sketch the graph of the equation y=6x
Only Reply
how do we prove the quadratic formular
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Tric Reply
x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
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Solve for the first variable in one of the equations, then substitute the result into the other equation. Point For: (6111,4111,−411)(6111,4111,-411) Equation Form: x=6111,y=4111,z=−411x=6111,y=4111,z=-411
x=61/11 y=41/11 z=−4/11 x=61/11 y=41/11 z=-4/11
Need help solving this problem (2/7)^-2
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the operation * is x * y =x + y/ 1+(x × y) show if the operation is commutative if x × y is not equal to -1
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A soccer field is a rectangle 130 meters wide and 110 meters long. The coach asks players to run from one corner to the other corner diagonally across. What is that distance, to the nearest tenths place.
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Jeannette has $5 and $10 bills in her wallet. The number of fives is three more than six times the number of tens. Let t represent the number of tens. Write an expression for the number of fives.
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What is the expressiin for seven less than four times the number of nickels
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why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
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Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
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. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11011/1.1
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