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What happened in Britain and the rest of Europe about 200 to 250 years ago?

Factors that played a role in the movement of people from rural areas to towns and cities:

  • Because of agricultural technology fewer people were needed to work in fields to produce food.
  • Because of developments in medical technology, there was a greater increase in population growth and people moved to the cities where they expected more job opportunities.
  • Steam technology resulted in the building of factories (close to coal mines) and many of the home industries in the rural areas became redundant.
  • The cities offered a better working environment and better pay.

Activity 2:

To have a class discussion on urbanization in sa

[lo 1.1, 1.5, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3]

  • Talk to your parents about the situation in South Africa and have a class discussion afterwards about the patterns of urbanization in South Africa. Your teacher will guide you.
  • Particularly look for similarities and differences between Europe in the past, and present day South Africa. Write a short paragraph on the subject.

Interesting statistics relating to how rapidly urbanisation took place in Europe in the past:

Britain

  • 1800 - 25% of the population lived in the cities and towns
  • 1900 - 75% of the population lived in the cities and towns

The city of Milan in Italy

  • Between 1951 and 1956 the population of the city increased by 1,5 million! Seventy percent of the new inhabitants came from rural areas in Southern Italy.

  • During the last 50 years there had been such a fixed pattern in population movement from rural to urban areas, especially in cities with rapidly developing industries, that rural areas were regarded as a source of labour for the industry. The depopulation of the countryside in areas such as northern Norway, the west of Ireland and northern Scotland was so severe, that it was difficult to refer to those areas as viable communities. The problem was made worse by the fact that the majority of people who moved were young and this slowed down the population growth even further.
  • Some countries have taken steps to rectify this situation. In Italy, for example, factories have been established in the south of the country.

3. Europe: change in the settlement of people over the past 50 years

Activity 3:

To identify urban areas in western europe

[lo 1.5]

This map shows the urban areas (indicated in black) in Western Europe to which people moved over the past 50 years. Do you realise where growth at a rate of 2% per year over a period of 50 years could lead? Identify the urban areas by placing the numbers alongside the cities.

Madrid
Barcelona
Milan
Stockholm
London
Rotterdam
Paris
Copenhagen
Marseilles
Lisbon

  • Activity 1.4 refers to urban areas instead of cities . In many instances this is due to expansion of cities. Eventually they merged with one another. The Ruhr region in Germany is one area in which a number of cities have merged. Those of you who are familiar with areas such as the Nelson Mandela Metropole, the area between Cape Town and Kuils River, the Witwatersrand or other metropoles in our country, will understand. In the Ruhr region and other European areas the high-density areas are much bigger.

Activity 4:

To reflect on the depopulation of rural areas and urbanisation

[lo 3.1, 3.3]

  • Is the influx of people into the cities a problem or an opportunity?
  • Is the depopulation of the rural areas a problem or an opportunity?

Your group must pretend to be the cabinet of this country. You need to make an urgent decision about the depopulation of the rural areas and the resulting influx into the cities. Are you going to oppose or allow it (and then manage it)?

Use the ideas in the frame below and propose other ideas, then discuss the issue thoroughly. Write a press release of about 150 to 200 words to announce your decision and motivate it.

* The prosperity of a country * Community life is disintegrating – What is left in rural areas? * Young people leave and older people are left behind * Churches * Schools * Houses * Controlled informal housing * Shops and garages * Technology * What does history teach us? * An enemy attack * Municipal income * The building of roads and provision of services * Employment opportunities * What role should the government play? * The “course of life” * Advantages and disadvantages * Tourism * The interest of the country * Emigration

Assessment

Learning Outcomes(LOs)
LO 1
GEOGRAPHICAL ENQUIRYThe learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate geographical and environmental concepts and processes.
Assessment standards(ASe)
We know this when the learner:
  • identifies sources of information, including simple statistics, to help answer the question about a social or environmental issue or problem;
  • selects and records relevant information from sources for specific purposes (including recording and observing in the field);
  • reports on enquiries, through discussion, debate, structured writing, graphs, tables, maps and diagrams.
LO 2
GEOGRAPHICAL KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDINGThe learner will be able to demonstrate an environmental knowledge and understanding.
We know this when the learner:
  • explains why more people live in some places than others;
  • identifies how access to different kinds of resources influences development in different places;
  • describes some ways in which society has changed the environment.
LO 3
EXPLORING ISSUESThe learner will be able to make informed decisions about social and environmental issues and problems.
We know this when the learner:
  • identifies inequalities within and between societies;
  • analyses some of the factors that lead toward social and environmental inequality at different geographical scales and in different places;
  • evaluates actions that lead to the sharing of resources and reducing poverty in a particular context.

Memorandum

Activity 1:

  • Climate – deserts
  • Frozen– very cold
  • Swamps en dangerous elements of nature
  • Diseases – causes large parts to be uninhabitable and therefore small population
  • Gateway to Europe
  • Nile – water source
  • Yes – most people concentrated around cities

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
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Loga
what does nano mean?
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nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 07, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11000/1.1
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