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What happened in Britain and the rest of Europe about 200 to 250 years ago?

Factors that played a role in the movement of people from rural areas to towns and cities:

  • Because of agricultural technology fewer people were needed to work in fields to produce food.
  • Because of developments in medical technology, there was a greater increase in population growth and people moved to the cities where they expected more job opportunities.
  • Steam technology resulted in the building of factories (close to coal mines) and many of the home industries in the rural areas became redundant.
  • The cities offered a better working environment and better pay.

Activity 2:

To have a class discussion on urbanization in sa

[lo 1.1, 1.5, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3]

  • Talk to your parents about the situation in South Africa and have a class discussion afterwards about the patterns of urbanization in South Africa. Your teacher will guide you.
  • Particularly look for similarities and differences between Europe in the past, and present day South Africa. Write a short paragraph on the subject.

Interesting statistics relating to how rapidly urbanisation took place in Europe in the past:


  • 1800 - 25% of the population lived in the cities and towns
  • 1900 - 75% of the population lived in the cities and towns

The city of Milan in Italy

  • Between 1951 and 1956 the population of the city increased by 1,5 million! Seventy percent of the new inhabitants came from rural areas in Southern Italy.

  • During the last 50 years there had been such a fixed pattern in population movement from rural to urban areas, especially in cities with rapidly developing industries, that rural areas were regarded as a source of labour for the industry. The depopulation of the countryside in areas such as northern Norway, the west of Ireland and northern Scotland was so severe, that it was difficult to refer to those areas as viable communities. The problem was made worse by the fact that the majority of people who moved were young and this slowed down the population growth even further.
  • Some countries have taken steps to rectify this situation. In Italy, for example, factories have been established in the south of the country.

3. Europe: change in the settlement of people over the past 50 years

Activity 3:

To identify urban areas in western europe

[lo 1.5]

This map shows the urban areas (indicated in black) in Western Europe to which people moved over the past 50 years. Do you realise where growth at a rate of 2% per year over a period of 50 years could lead? Identify the urban areas by placing the numbers alongside the cities.


  • Activity 1.4 refers to urban areas instead of cities . In many instances this is due to expansion of cities. Eventually they merged with one another. The Ruhr region in Germany is one area in which a number of cities have merged. Those of you who are familiar with areas such as the Nelson Mandela Metropole, the area between Cape Town and Kuils River, the Witwatersrand or other metropoles in our country, will understand. In the Ruhr region and other European areas the high-density areas are much bigger.

Activity 4:

To reflect on the depopulation of rural areas and urbanisation

[lo 3.1, 3.3]

  • Is the influx of people into the cities a problem or an opportunity?
  • Is the depopulation of the rural areas a problem or an opportunity?

Your group must pretend to be the cabinet of this country. You need to make an urgent decision about the depopulation of the rural areas and the resulting influx into the cities. Are you going to oppose or allow it (and then manage it)?

Use the ideas in the frame below and propose other ideas, then discuss the issue thoroughly. Write a press release of about 150 to 200 words to announce your decision and motivate it.

* The prosperity of a country * Community life is disintegrating – What is left in rural areas? * Young people leave and older people are left behind * Churches * Schools * Houses * Controlled informal housing * Shops and garages * Technology * What does history teach us? * An enemy attack * Municipal income * The building of roads and provision of services * Employment opportunities * What role should the government play? * The “course of life” * Advantages and disadvantages * Tourism * The interest of the country * Emigration


Learning Outcomes(LOs)
LO 1
GEOGRAPHICAL ENQUIRYThe learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate geographical and environmental concepts and processes.
Assessment standards(ASe)
We know this when the learner:
  • identifies sources of information, including simple statistics, to help answer the question about a social or environmental issue or problem;
  • selects and records relevant information from sources for specific purposes (including recording and observing in the field);
  • reports on enquiries, through discussion, debate, structured writing, graphs, tables, maps and diagrams.
LO 2
GEOGRAPHICAL KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDINGThe learner will be able to demonstrate an environmental knowledge and understanding.
We know this when the learner:
  • explains why more people live in some places than others;
  • identifies how access to different kinds of resources influences development in different places;
  • describes some ways in which society has changed the environment.
LO 3
EXPLORING ISSUESThe learner will be able to make informed decisions about social and environmental issues and problems.
We know this when the learner:
  • identifies inequalities within and between societies;
  • analyses some of the factors that lead toward social and environmental inequality at different geographical scales and in different places;
  • evaluates actions that lead to the sharing of resources and reducing poverty in a particular context.


Activity 1:

  • Climate – deserts
  • Frozen– very cold
  • Swamps en dangerous elements of nature
  • Diseases – causes large parts to be uninhabitable and therefore small population
  • Gateway to Europe
  • Nile – water source
  • Yes – most people concentrated around cities

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 07, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11000/1.1
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