<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

What happened in Britain and the rest of Europe about 200 to 250 years ago?

Factors that played a role in the movement of people from rural areas to towns and cities:

  • Because of agricultural technology fewer people were needed to work in fields to produce food.
  • Because of developments in medical technology, there was a greater increase in population growth and people moved to the cities where they expected more job opportunities.
  • Steam technology resulted in the building of factories (close to coal mines) and many of the home industries in the rural areas became redundant.
  • The cities offered a better working environment and better pay.

Activity 2:

To have a class discussion on urbanization in sa

[lo 1.1, 1.5, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3]

  • Talk to your parents about the situation in South Africa and have a class discussion afterwards about the patterns of urbanization in South Africa. Your teacher will guide you.
  • Particularly look for similarities and differences between Europe in the past, and present day South Africa. Write a short paragraph on the subject.

Interesting statistics relating to how rapidly urbanisation took place in Europe in the past:


  • 1800 - 25% of the population lived in the cities and towns
  • 1900 - 75% of the population lived in the cities and towns

The city of Milan in Italy

  • Between 1951 and 1956 the population of the city increased by 1,5 million! Seventy percent of the new inhabitants came from rural areas in Southern Italy.

  • During the last 50 years there had been such a fixed pattern in population movement from rural to urban areas, especially in cities with rapidly developing industries, that rural areas were regarded as a source of labour for the industry. The depopulation of the countryside in areas such as northern Norway, the west of Ireland and northern Scotland was so severe, that it was difficult to refer to those areas as viable communities. The problem was made worse by the fact that the majority of people who moved were young and this slowed down the population growth even further.
  • Some countries have taken steps to rectify this situation. In Italy, for example, factories have been established in the south of the country.

3. Europe: change in the settlement of people over the past 50 years

Activity 3:

To identify urban areas in western europe

[lo 1.5]

This map shows the urban areas (indicated in black) in Western Europe to which people moved over the past 50 years. Do you realise where growth at a rate of 2% per year over a period of 50 years could lead? Identify the urban areas by placing the numbers alongside the cities.


  • Activity 1.4 refers to urban areas instead of cities . In many instances this is due to expansion of cities. Eventually they merged with one another. The Ruhr region in Germany is one area in which a number of cities have merged. Those of you who are familiar with areas such as the Nelson Mandela Metropole, the area between Cape Town and Kuils River, the Witwatersrand or other metropoles in our country, will understand. In the Ruhr region and other European areas the high-density areas are much bigger.

Activity 4:

To reflect on the depopulation of rural areas and urbanisation

[lo 3.1, 3.3]

  • Is the influx of people into the cities a problem or an opportunity?
  • Is the depopulation of the rural areas a problem or an opportunity?

Your group must pretend to be the cabinet of this country. You need to make an urgent decision about the depopulation of the rural areas and the resulting influx into the cities. Are you going to oppose or allow it (and then manage it)?

Use the ideas in the frame below and propose other ideas, then discuss the issue thoroughly. Write a press release of about 150 to 200 words to announce your decision and motivate it.

* The prosperity of a country * Community life is disintegrating – What is left in rural areas? * Young people leave and older people are left behind * Churches * Schools * Houses * Controlled informal housing * Shops and garages * Technology * What does history teach us? * An enemy attack * Municipal income * The building of roads and provision of services * Employment opportunities * What role should the government play? * The “course of life” * Advantages and disadvantages * Tourism * The interest of the country * Emigration


Learning Outcomes(LOs)
LO 1
GEOGRAPHICAL ENQUIRYThe learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate geographical and environmental concepts and processes.
Assessment standards(ASe)
We know this when the learner:
  • identifies sources of information, including simple statistics, to help answer the question about a social or environmental issue or problem;
  • selects and records relevant information from sources for specific purposes (including recording and observing in the field);
  • reports on enquiries, through discussion, debate, structured writing, graphs, tables, maps and diagrams.
LO 2
GEOGRAPHICAL KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDINGThe learner will be able to demonstrate an environmental knowledge and understanding.
We know this when the learner:
  • explains why more people live in some places than others;
  • identifies how access to different kinds of resources influences development in different places;
  • describes some ways in which society has changed the environment.
LO 3
EXPLORING ISSUESThe learner will be able to make informed decisions about social and environmental issues and problems.
We know this when the learner:
  • identifies inequalities within and between societies;
  • analyses some of the factors that lead toward social and environmental inequality at different geographical scales and in different places;
  • evaluates actions that lead to the sharing of resources and reducing poverty in a particular context.


Activity 1:

  • Climate – deserts
  • Frozen– very cold
  • Swamps en dangerous elements of nature
  • Diseases – causes large parts to be uninhabitable and therefore small population
  • Gateway to Europe
  • Nile – water source
  • Yes – most people concentrated around cities

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get Jobilize Job Search Mobile App in your pocket Now!

Get it on Google Play Download on the App Store Now

Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 07, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11000/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Geography grade 6' conversation and receive update notifications?